Simplify text or Generate Multi-lingual Multi-document Summaries



BOOK I. HSIO R.

Confucius said, is it not pleasing to learn with an unchanging truly keeping-on action and attention? is it not giving great pleasure to have friends coming from far away quarters, is he not a man of complete good quality who feels no restlessness though men may take no note of him?

The philosopher Yu said they are few who being offspring-like and brother-like are interested of wounding feeling against their chiefs, guides. There have been none who not liking to wound (feeling) against their chiefs, guides have been interested of troubling up orderless minds. The higher man able to be bent his attention to what is strong. That being put up, all useful courses naturally grow up. Offspring-like good thoughts and acts and brother-like things put forward are they not the root of all kind actions?

Confucius said, fine words and an ideas-giving looks are seldom connected with true good quality.

The philosopher Tsang said I daily look at myself on three points: whether in doing business for others I may have been not true to, whether in relations with friends I may have been not straightforward, whether I may have not got control of and practised the teachings of my teacher.

Confucius said, to rule a country of a thousand two-wheeled vehicles there must be respectful attention to business and trueness, use of as little as possible in money use; and love for men; and the use of the people at the right seasons.

Confucius said, a young person when at home should be offspring-like and abroad respectful to his old persons. He should be serious and truthful. He should give over-much in love to all and grow the friendship of the good. When he has time and chance after the operation of these things he should use them in kind observations.

Tsze-hsia said, if a man takes away his mind from the love of beauty and puts it to use as in a true way to the love of good qualities, if in giving help to his parents, he can put power into his best numbers, if in giving help to his Prince he can give his existence if in his relations with his friends his words are straightforward although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.

Confucius said, if the learner of letters be not serious he will not name forth any high opinion and his learning will not be solid. “Keep always-true behavior and truth as first principles Have no friends not equal to yourself. When you have bad points do not fear to let them go.

The philosopher Tsang said, 'Let there be a careful attention to do the putting of a dead person under the earth religious acts to father and mother, and let them be moved after when long gone with the ceremonies of offerings; -- then the good qualities of the people will retake its right qualities of note.'

Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung, saying, 'When our chief comes to any country, he does not become feeble to learn all about its government. Does he question his knowledge? or is it given to him?' Tsze-kung said, 'our chief is kind, pright, kind, careful and ready to please, and thus he gets his knowledge. Confucius's form of making a request for knowledge! -- is it not different from that of other men?'

Confucius said, 'While a man's father is living, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his control of business. If for three years he does not make a change from the way of his father, he may be named offspring-like.'

The philosopher Yu said, 'In doing frequently the rules of right behavior, a natural comfort is to be highly valued. In the ways gave order by the old kings, this is the very good, of highest quality, and in things small and great we move after them. 'still it is not to be observed in all examples. If one, being certain how such comfort should be highly valued, shows it, without keeping control of it by the rules of right behavior, this in the same way is not to be done.'

The philosopher Yu said, 'When agreements are made according to what is right, what is said can be made good. When respect is made clear according to what is right, one keeps far from shame. When the parties upon whom a man is supported by are right persons to be near with, he can make them his guides and chiefs, rulers in control.'

Confucius said, 'He who tries to be a man of complete good qualities in his food does not have a look for to please his desire for food, nor in his living place does he have a look for the appliances of comfort; he is serious in what he is doing, and careful in his talk, he frequents the company of men of sense that he may be put right: -- such a person may be said in fact to love to learn.'

Tsze-kung said, 'what do you say about the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the full of money man who is not self-looking?' Confucius answered, 'they will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet happy, and to him, who, though full of money loves the rules of right behavior.' Tsze-kung answered, 'it is said in the Book of great thought, "As you cut and then record, as you make a cut and then polish." -- The sense is the same, I get, as that which you have just put into words.' Confucius said, 'With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the complex verses. I told him one point, and he knew its right order.'

Confucius said, 'I will not be pained at men's not having knowledge of me; I will be pained that I do not have knowledge of men.'

Book II. Wei CHANG.

Confucius said, 'He who uses government with the help of his good quality may be made a comparison to the north point of earth star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn in the direction of it.'
Confucius said, 'In the Book of Sense are three hundred bits, parts, but the design of them all may be took to oneself in one group of words making sense -- "having no ill-minded thoughts."'

Confucius said, 'If the persons in general be led by laws, and equality to be given them by punishments, they will attempt to keep from the punishment, but have no sense of shame. 'If they be led by good qualities and equality to be given them by the rules of right behavior, they will have the sense of shame, and in addition will become good.'

Confucius said, 'At 15, I had my mind bent on learning. 'At thirty, I stood solid. 'At forty, I had no doubts. 'At fifty, I knew the decisions given by the judge of the sky, on high. 'At 60, my ear was a body part doing what is ordered for the meeting of truth. 'At 70, I could move after what my heart desired, without going against what was right.'

Mang questioned what offspring-like good thoughts and acts were. Confucius said, 'it is not being not doing as ordered.' Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, Confucius told him, saying, 'Mang-Sun questioned me what offspring-like good thoughts and acts was, and I answered him, -- "not being not doing as ordered."' Fan Ch'ih said, 'what did you have as a purpose?' Confucius answered, 'That father and mother, when living, be worked for according to the right behavior; that, when dead, they should be put under the earth according to the right behavior; and that they should be offered to, according to the right behavior.'

Mang Wu questioned what offspring-like good thoughts and acts were. Confucius said, 'father and mother are troubled for fear that their children should be ill.

Tsze-Yu questioned what offspring-like good thoughts and acts were. Confucius said, 'The offspring-like good thoughts and acts of in our time mean the support of one's father and mother. But dogs and horses in the same way are able to do something in the way of support; -- without deep respect, what is there to see what is different the one support given from the other?'

Tsze-hsia questioned what offspring-like good thoughts and acts were. Confucius said, 'The trouble is with the approval. If, when their old persons have any giving trouble business, the young take the hard work of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they put them before their old person, is THIS to be thought out as offspring-like good thoughts and acts?'

Confucius said, 'I have talked with Hui for a complete day, and he has not made any stopping reason to anything I said; -- as if he were slow minded. He has gone away, and I have looked at his acts, behavior when away from me, and found him able to make clear by example or pictures my teachings. Hui! -- He is not slow minded.'

Confucius said, 'See what a man does. 'Mark his purposes. 'Look at what things he rests. 'How can a man keep secret his qualities?

Confucius said, 'If a man keeps putting great value on his old knowledge, so as going on all the time to be getting new, he may be a teacher of others.'

Confucius said, 'The able learner is not an apparatus.'

Tsze-kung questioned what constituted the higher man. Confucius said, 'He acts before he talks, and after talks according to his acts.'

Confucius said, 'The higher man is believer and not one-sided. The cruel man is one-sided and no believer.'

Confucius said, 'Learning without thought is lost work; thought without learning is dangerous.'

Confucius said, 'The observation of strange bodies of teaching is wounding in fact!'

Confucius said, 'Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you have knowledge of a thing, to state that you have knowledge of it; and when you do not have knowledge of it; to let out that you do not have knowledge of it;-- this is knowledge.'

Tsze-chang was learning with a view to a paid public position. Confucius said, 'Hear much and put aside the points of which you be in doubt, while you talk carefully at the same time of the others: -- then you will have few times for responsibility. See much and put aside the things which seem dangerous, while you are careful at the same time in taking the others into operation: -- then you will have few times for regretting. When one gives few times for make a protest in his words, and few times for regretting in his acts, he is in the way to get payment.'

The Duke Ai questioned, saying, 'what should be done in order to get the doing as ordered of the persons in general?' Confucius answered, 'move forward the upright and put on one side the twisted, then the persons in general will take orders. Move forward the twisted and put on one side the upright, then the persons in general will not take orders.'

Chi K'ang questioned how to cause the persons in general to have deep respect for their ruler, to be true to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to good qualities. Confucius said, 'Let him be in authority over them with serious air; -- then they will deeply respect him. Let him be offspring-like and kind to all; -- then they will be true to him. Let him move forward the good and teach the unable; -- then they will readily look to be of good qualities.'

Someone talked in public to Confucius, saying, 'Sir, why are you not taken in by the government?' Confucius said, 'what does the Shu-ching say of offspring-like good thoughts and acts? -- "You are offspring-like, you send out your brotherly necessary acts. These qualities are put on view in government." This then also forms part of the use of government. Why must there be THAT -- making one be in the government?'

Confucius said, 'I do not have knowledge of how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a wide, of great size vehicle be made to go without the cross-bar for putting together the cows used for transport to, or a small vehicle without the apparatus for putting together the horses?'

Tsze-chang questioned if the business of ten ages after could be experienced. Confucius said, 'The Yin line of rulers took as guide, example, rude the rules of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be within one's knowledge. The Chau line of rulers has moved after the rules of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be within one's knowledge. Some other may move after the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred times, its business may be experienced.'

Confucius said, 'For a man to offer to a thought source which does not be the property of him is sweet sounding words. 'To see what is right and not to do it is need of power for controlling fear.'

Book III. PA YIH.

Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who had eight lines of wordless dances in his part, 'If he can take to do this, what may he not take to do?'

The three families used the YUNG complex verse, while the vessels were being removed, at the end of the offering. Confucius said, '"Giving help are the Princes; -- the son of the sky on high looks deep and serious:" -- what use can these words have in the hall of the three families?'

Confucius said, 'If a man be without the good qualities right for all persons as a group, what has he to do with the acts of right behavior? If a man be without the good qualities right for all persons as a group, what has he to do with music?'

Lin Fang questioned what the first thing to be given attention to was in special public events. Confucius said, 'A great question in fact! 'In pleasure-making special public events, it is better to be thin-using than over-using. In the special public events of time of being sad for a loss, it is better that there be deep sad feelings than a minute attention to observances.'

Confucius said, 'The rough, simple, natural tribes of the east and north have their Princes, and are not like the States of our great land which are without them.'

The chief of the Chi family was about to give up to the T'ai mountain. Confucius said to Zan Yu, 'May you not keep him from destruction from this?' He answered, 'I cannot.' Confucius said, 'cry of trouble! Will you say that the T'ai Mountain is not so well-judging as Lin Fang?'

Confucius said, 'The learner of good qualities has no competing-views. If it be said he cannot keep from them, shall this be in archery? But he bends down readily-to-please to his competitors; in this way he goes up the hall, slopes down, and forces the give up as punishment or by rule of drinking. In his competing view, he is still the Chun-tsze (chief).'

Tsze-hsia questioned saying, 'what is the purpose of the bit out of book-- "The good-looking little hollow of her artful smile! The well-outlined black and white of her eye! The simple, clear, straight of the colors?"' Confucius said, 'The business of putting on the colors follows (the readying of) the level stretch of country land. 'Special public event then are a coming-after thing?' Confucius said, 'it is Shang who can take out my sense. Now I can begin to talk about the complex verses with him.'

Confucius said, 'I could give detailed account of the ceremonies of the Hsia line of rulers, but Chi can not enough make a statement of my words. I could give detailed account of the ceremonies of the Yin line of rulers, but Sung can not enough make a statement of my words. (They cannot do so) because of the feebleness of their records and wise men. If those were enough, I could put them forward in support of my words.'

Confucius said, 'At the great offering, after the putting out of the liquid offering, I have no desire to look on.'

Someone questioned the sense of the great offering. Confucius said, 'I do not have knowledge. He who knew its sense would discover it as simple, not hard to rule the country led by a king in connection with look on this; -- pointing to his back of hand.

He offered to the dead, as if they were present. He offered to the thought sources, as if the thought sources were present. Confucius said, 'I take into account my not being present at the offering, as if I did not make offering.'

Wang-sun Chia questioned, saying, 'what is the sense of the saying, "it is better to pay for offerings to the shut-in fireplace than to the south-west space near where walls join?"' Confucius said, 'Not so. He who wounds (feeling) against the sky on high, has not any to whom he can make requests.'

Confucius said, 'Chau had the better chance of viewing the two past lines of rulers. How complete and beautiful, polished are its rules! I take Chau as a guide, example.'

Confucius, when he entered the most important place of religion, questioned about everything. Someone said, 'Who will say that the son of the man of Tsau has knowledge of the rules of right behavior!

He has entered the most important place of religion and makes a request about everything.' Confucius heard the statement, saying, and said, 'This is a rule of right behavior.

Confucius said, 'In archery it is not going through the leather which is the principal thing; -- because persons in general's power is not equal. This was the old way.'

Tsze-kung wished to do away with the offering of a sheep connected with the start-up of the first day of each month. Confucius said, 'Ts'ze, you love the sheep; I love the event.'

Confucius said, 'The full observance of the rules of right behavior in giving help to one's Prince is accounted by persons in general to be overstatement.'

The Duke Ting questioned how a Prince should use his government representatives in another country, and how government representatives in another country should work for their Prince. Confucius answered, 'A Prince should use his government representatives in another country according to the rules of right behavior; government representatives in another country should work for their Prince with always-true behavior.'

Confucius said, 'The Kwan Tsu put feelings of pleasure without being loose, free behavior, and of deep sad feeling without being damagingly more than enough.'

The Duke Ai questioned Tsai Wo about the high tables in church of the thought sources of the land. Tsai Wo answered, 'The Hsia ruler planted the sharp evergreen tree about them; the men of the Yin planted the scale-like evergreen tree; and the men of the Chau planted the dark red, brown tree, that is thereby to cause the persons in general to be in fear before.' When Confucius heard it, he said, 'things that are done, it is without need to talk about; things that have had their order of events, it is without need to protest about; things that are past, it is needless to make a protest.'

Confucius said, 'Small in fact was the power of Kwan Chung!' Someone said, 'was Kwan Chung simple?' 'Kwan,' was the answer, 'had the San Kwei, and his persons in authority did no twice necessary acts; how can he be thought out as simple?' 'Then, did Kwan Chung have knowledge of the rules of right behavior?' Confucius said, 'The Princes of States have a screen intercepting the view at their doorways.

Kwan had in the same way a cover up his doorway. The Princes of States on any friendly meeting between two of them, had a seat on which to place their upside down cups. Kwan had in addition such a seat. If Kwan knew the rules of right behavior, who does not have knowledge of them?'

Confucius teaching the important music-chief of Lu said, 'How to play music may be experienced. At the start of the part, all the parts should sound together. As it goes on, they should be in harmony while in plurality separate and moving without break, and in this way on to the ending.'

The country edges Head at Yi requested to be introduced to Confucius, saying, 'When men of higher good qualities have come to this, I have not ever been said no to the special right of seeing them.' The followers of the wise man introduced him, and when he came out from the meeting, he said, 'my friends, why are you troubled by your chief's loss of office? The country led by a king has long been without the sense of right of truth and right; the sky on high is going to use your chief as a bell with its tongue made of wood.'

Confucius said of the Shao that it was errorlessly beautiful and in addition errorlessly good. He said of the Wu that it was errorlessly beautiful but not errorlessly good.

Confucius said, 'High station made full without desires-giving free-giving; special public events done without deep respect; time of being sad for a loss guided without feeling sad; -- wherewith should I see such ways?'

Book IV. LE JIN.

Confucius said, 'it is right behavior of good qualities which make up the qualities of note of a part of town. If a man in selecting a house, does not fix on one where such overcomes, how can he be wise?' Confucius said, 'those who are without good qualities cannot keep long either in a moneyless condition and hard times, or in a condition of pleasure. The persons of good qualities rest in good quality; the wise desire good quality.'

Confucius said, 'it is only the (truly) of good quality man, who can love, or who can hate, others.'

Confucius said, 'If the will be put on good quality, there will be no experience of badness.'

Confucius said, 'good qualities and great respect are what men desire. If it cannot be got the right way, they rightly would not be kept. Moneyless condition and cruelness are what men do not like. If it cannot be kept out of the way of in the right way, they rightly would not be kept out of the way. 'If a higher man let go good qualities, how can he put into effect the requirements of that name? 'The higher man does not, even for the space of a single meal, act opposite to good quality. In short times of (doing) quickly, he sticks to it. In seasons of danger, he sticks to it.'

Confucius said, 'I have not seen a person who loved good quality, or one who hated what was not of good quality. He who loved good quality, would respect nothing above it. He who hated what is not of good quality, would experience good quality in such a way that he would not let anything that is not of good quality to come near his person. 'Is any one able for one day to put to use his power to good quality? I have not seen the example in which his power would be not enough. 'Rightly would there possibly be any such example, I have not seen it.'

Confucius said, 'The bad points of men are representative of the division to which they be part of. By observing a man's bad points, it may be within one's knowledge that he is of good quality.'

Confucius said, 'If a man in the morning hear the right way, he may come to an end in the nightfall without regret.'

Confucius said, 'A learner whose mind is put on truth, and who is feeling shame of bad clothes and bad food, is not right to be talked to.'

Confucius said, 'The higher man, in the earth, does not put his mind either for anything, or against anything; what is right he will move after.'

Confucius said, 'The higher man thinks of good quality; the small man thinks of comfort. The higher man thinks of the punishments of law; the small man thinks of supports which he may get.'

Confucius said: 'He who acts with an unchanging view to his own better chances will be much talked against.'

Confucius said, 'If a Prince is able to control his country with the pleasing behavior right for the rules of right behavior, what trouble will he have? If he cannot control it with that pleasing behavior, what has he to do with the rules of right behavior?'

Confucius said, 'A man rightly would say, I am not troubled about that I have no place, I am troubled about how I may go into one. I am not troubled about that I am not within one's knowledge, I have a look to be good enough to be within one's knowledge.'

Confucius said, 'Shan, my body of teaching is that of a present-everywhere oneness.' The supporter Tsang answered, 'Yes.' Confucius went out, and the other supporters questioned, saying, 'what sense do his words have?' Tsang said, 'The body of teaching of our chief is to be true to the general rules of our nature and the kind use of them to others, -- this and nothing more.'

Confucius said, 'The mind of the higher man is having some knowledge as with rightness; the mind of the of poor quality man is having some knowledge as with profit.'

Confucius said, 'When we see men of value, we rightly would have in mind that of equalling them; when we see men of opposite qualities, we rightly would turn to the inside and look at ourselves.'

Confucius said, 'In giving help to his father and mother, a son may protest with them, but kindly, quietly, not roughly; when he sees that they do not have a tendency to move after his opinion, he makes clear an increased degree of deep respect, but does not let go his purpose; and rightly would they punish him, he does not let himself to low talking.

Confucius said, 'While his parents are living, the son may not go overseas to a distance. If he does go overseas, he must have a fixed place to which he goes.'

Confucius said, 'If the son for three years does not make a change to from the way of his father, he may be named offspring-like.'

Confucius said, 'The years of parents may by no means not be kept in the memory, as a right time at once for deep pleasure and for fear.'

Confucius said, 'The reason why the old did not readily give power of saying to their words, was that they feared so that not their actions rightly would not come up to them.'

Confucius said, 'The careful not frequently make an error.'

Confucius said, 'The higher man desires to be slow in his talk and serious in his acts, behavior.'

Confucius said, 'good quality is not left to be positioned by oneself. He who does it will have persons living near.'

Tsze-yu said, 'In giving help to a Prince, frequent protests lead to shame. Between friends, frequent protests make the friendship be far away.'

Book V. KUNG-YE CH'ANG.

Confucius said of Kung-ye Ch'ang that he could be married; though he was in agreements for payment, he had not been responsible of any crime. As agreement, he gave him his own daughter to become a married woman. Of Nan Yung he said that if the country were well ruled he would not be out of office, and if it were ill-governed, he would get away from punishment and shame. He gave him the daughter of his own older brother to become a married woman.

Confucius said of Tsze-chien, 'Of higher good qualities is such a man! If there were not good quality men in Lu, how could this man have gotten these qualities?' Tsze-kung questioned 'What do you say of me, Ts'ze? Confucius said, 'You are an apparatus.' 'What apparatus?' 'A jewel-stoned offering apparatus.'

Someone said, 'Yung is truly of good quality, but he is not ready with his tongue.' Confucius said, 'what is the good of being ready with the tongue? They, who meeting men with sharpness of use of words, for the most part get themselves a feeling of hate. I do not have knowledge if he be truly of good quality, but why rightly would he make clear readiness of the tongue?'

Confucius was desiring Ch'i-tiao K'ai to move into on public work. He answered, 'I am not still able to rest in the certain feeling of THIS.' Confucius was pleased. Confucius said, 'my bodies of teaching make no way. I will get upon a flat wood for water transportation and rest about on the sea. He that will go with me will be Yu, I have no fear say.' Tsze-lu hearing this was pleased, happy, upon which Confucius said, 'Yu is more interested of having no fear than I am. He does not use his decision-making upon fields.'

Mang Wu questioned about Tsze-lu, if he was errorless of good quality. Confucius said, 'I do not have knowledge of that.' He questioned again, when Confucius answered, 'In a country led by a king of a thousand two-wheeled vehicles, Yu could be given work to manage the military taxes, but I do not have knowledge if he be errorlessly of good quality.' 'And what do you say of Ch'iu?' Confucius answered, 'In a great town of a thousand families, or a group of a hundred two-wheeled vehicles, Ch'iu could be given work as governor, but I do not have knowledge if he is errorlessly of good quality.' 'what do you say of Ch'ih?' Confucius answered, 'With his band joined round and getting up in a place of rulers, Ch'ih could be used to talk with the visitors and persons in another's place, but I do not have knowledge if he is errorlessly of good quality.'

Confucius said to Tsze-kung, 'which do you take into account higher, yourself or Hui?' Tsze-kung answered, 'How fearlessly attempt I to make a comparison of myself with Hui? Hui comes to hears one point and has knowledge of all about a field; I hear one point, and have knowledge of a second.' Confucius said, 'You are not equal to him. I grant you, you are not equal to him.'

Tsai Yu being sleeping during the day, Confucius said, in bad condition wood cannot be made a cut; a wall of dirty earth will not get the small spade. This Yu! -- what is the use of my giving protests of him?' Confucius said, 'At first, my way with men was to hear their words, and give them credit for their acts, behavior. Now my way is to hear their words, and look at their acts, behavior. It is from Yu that I have learned to make this change.'

Confucius said, 'I have not seen a solid and stiff man.' Some one answered, 'There is Shan Ch'ang.' 'Ch'ang,' said Confucius, 'is under the effect of his strong desires; how can he be said solid and stiff?'

Tsze-kung said, 'what I do not desire men to do to me, I in addition desire not to do to men.' Confucius said, 'Ts'ze, you have not got to that.'

Tsze-kung said, 'Confucius's own personal displays of his general rules and normal, details of them may be heard. His talks about man's nature, and the way of the sky, on high, cannot be heard.'

When Tsze-lu heard anything, if he had not still done well in taking it into experience, he was only in fear that he would hear something more.

Tsze-kung questioned saying, 'On what land did Kung-wan get that name of Wan?' Confucius said, 'He was of an action-bound nature and still interested of learning, and he was not feeling shame to question and learn from his lower persons! -- On these grounds he has been made Wan.'

Confucius said of Tsze-ch'an that he had four of the qualities of a higher man: -- in his acts of himself, he was simple, in giving help to his chiefs he was respectful; in making stronger the persons in general, he was kind; in ordering the persons in general, he was upright.'

Confucius said, 'Yen P'ing knew well how to support friendly relations. The friendship could be long, but he made clear the same respect as at first.'

Confucius said, 'Tsang Wan kept a wide, of great size land animal with hard outer covering in a house, on top of the supports of which he had small mountains made, and with pictures of water flowering plant on the small supports above the rays of light supporting the roof-supports. -- Of what sort were his wise thoughts?'

Tsze-chang questioned saying, 'The head of town church Tsze-wan 3 times took office, and shown clearly no deep pleasure in his face. Three times he went away from office, and shown clearly no displeasure. He made it a point to give details the new head of the way in which he had guided the government; -- what do you say of him?' Confucius answered. 'He was true.' 'was he errorlessly of good quality?' 'I do not have knowledge. How can he be said errorless of good quality?' Tsze-chang went forward, 'When the officer Ch'ui put to death the Prince of Ch'i, Ch'an Wan though he was the owner of forty horses, let them go and left the country. Coming to another nation, he said, "They are here like our great officer, Ch'ui," and left it. He came to a second state, and with the same observation left it in addition; -- what do you say of him?' Confucius answered, 'He was clear.' Was he errorless of good quality?' 'I do not have knowledge. How can he be said errorlessly of good quality?'

Chi Wan thought three times, and then acted. When Confucius was detailed of it, he said, 'twice may do.'

Confucius said, 'When good order ruled in his country, Ning Wu acted the part of a wise man. When his country was in out of order, he acted the part of a not bright man. Others may equal his wise thoughts, but they cannot equal his foolish acts.'

When Confucius was in Ch'an, he said, 'Let me come back! Let me come back! The little children of my school are strongly desiring and too quick. They are able to do things well and complete so far, but they do not have knowledge of how to keep inside limits and form themselves.'

Confucius said, 'Po-i and Shu-ch'i did not keep the former badnesses of men in mind, and for this reason the bitter feelings in the direction of them were small in number.'

Confucius said, 'Who says of Wei-shang Kao that he is upright? One requested some wine-like acid liquid of him, and he requested it of a person living near and gave it to the man.'

Confucius said, 'High-quality words, an ideas-giving looks, and more than enough respect; -- Tso Ch'iu-ming was feeling shame of them. I in addition am feeling of shame of them. To keep secret bitter feelings against a person, and come into view as friendly with him; -- Tso Ch'iu-ming was feeling of shame of such acts, behavior. I in addition am feeling of shame of it.'

Yen Yuan and Chi Lu being by his side, Confucius said to them, 'Come, let each of you say his desires.' Tsze-lu said, 'I rightly would like, having two-wheeled vehicles and horses, and light animal's coat dresses, to give part of them to my friends, and though they rightly would make of no use them, I would not be unpleased.' Yen Yuan said, 'I rightly would like not to talk about what one is able to do of my qualities of note, and not to put on view of my good, kind acts.' Tsze-lu then said, 'I rightly would like, sir, to hear your desires.' Confucius said, 'they are, in connection to the very old, to give them rest; in connection with friends, to make clear to them as true; in connection to the young, to pleasure them delicately.'

Confucius said, 'it is all over! I have not still seen one who could become conscious of his bad points, and in the mind and heart make a statement against himself.'

Confucius said, 'In a small town of ten families, there may be discovered one respectable and straightforward as I am, but not so interested in learning.'

BOOK VI. YUNG YEY.

Confucius said, 'There is Yung! -- He could take up the place of a Prince.' Chung-kung questioned about Tsze-sang Po-tsze. Confucius said, 'He may go through. He does not mind small fields.' Chung-kung said, 'If a man take care of in himself a respect-bound feeling of the need of attention to business, though he may be simple, not hard in small matters in his government of the persons in general, that may be let. But if he take care of in himself that simple, not hard feeling, and in addition keep it out in his experience, is not such an simple, not hard way more than enough?' Confucius said, 'Yung's words are right.'

The Duke Ai questioned which of the supporters loved to learn. Confucius answered to him, 'There was Yen Hui; HE loved to learn. He did not move his violent feelings; he did not redo a bad point. Unhappily, his fixed time was short and he came to an end; and now there is not such another. I have not still heard of anyone who loves to learn as he did.'

Tsze-hwa being used on a special work to Ch'i, the supporter Zan requested grain for his mother. Confucius said, 'Give her a fu.' Yen requested more. 'Give her an yu,' said Confucius. Yen gave her five ping. Confucius said, 'When Ch'ih was going on to Ch'i, he had fat horses to his vehicle, and wore light soft, thick hair on animals. I have heard that a higher man helps the troubled but does not make an addition to the things of value of the persons having much money.' Yuan Sze being made governor of his town by Confucius, he gave him nine hundred measures of grain, but Sze declined them. Confucius said, 'Do not say no to them. May you not give them away in the parts of town, small towns, towns, and small country towns?'

Confucius, talking of Chung-kung, said, 'If the fat lower part of the leg of a colored-design cow be red and horned, though men may not desire to use it, would the body-less beings of the mountains and rivers put it on one side?'

Confucius said, 'Such was Hui that for three months there would be nothing in his mind opposite to errorless good qualities. The others may get to this on some days or in some months, but nothing more.'

Chi K'ang questioned about Chung-yu, if he was suddenly taken to be given work as an officer of government. Confucius said, 'Yu is a man of decision; what trouble would he discover in being an officer of government?' K'ang questioned 'is Ts'ze suddenly taken to be given work as an officer of government?' and was answered, 'Ts'ze is a man of quick brain; what trouble would he discover in being an officer of government?' And to the same question about Ch'iu Confucius gave the same answer, saying, 'Ch'iu is a man of different ableness.'

The chief of the Chi family sent to question Min Tsze-ch'ien to be governor of Pi. Min Tsze-ch'ien said, 'say no to the offer for me with good behavior. If anyone comes again to me with a second note, I will be pleased to go and live on the banks of the Wan.'

Po-niu being ill, Confucius went to question for him. He took grip of his hand through the window, and said, 'it is putting him to death. It is the meeting of the sky, on high cry of trouble! That such a man rightly would have such a disease! That such a man rightly would have such a disease!'

Confucius said, 'very good in fact was the good qualities of Hui! With a single bamboo plate of rice, a single vessel plate of drink, and living in his narrow street, while others could not have had ongoing existence with the trouble, he did not let his deep pleasure to be acted-on by it. Very good in fact was the good qualities of Hui!'

Yen Ch'iu said, 'it is not that I do not get pleasure in your bodies of teaching, but my power is not enough.' Confucius said, 'those whose power is not enough give over in the middle of the way but now you limit yourself.'

Confucius said to Tsze-hsia, 'Do you be a learner after the polished and tasteful form of the higher man, and not after that of the of poor qualities man.'

Tsze-yu being governor of Wu-ch'ang, Confucius said to him, 'Have you got good men there?' He answered, 'There is Tan-t'ai Mieh-ming, who not ever in walking takes a short cut, and not ever comes to my office, but for public business.'

Confucius said, 'Mang Chih-fan does not take credit of his value. Being in the back part on a special event of flight, when they were about to move into the doorway, he whipped up his horse, saying, "It is not that I have no fear to be last. My horse would not go forward."'

Confucius said, 'without the misleading talk of the over-acting speaker T'o and the beauty of the Prince Chao of Sung, it is hard to get away in the present times in existence.'

Confucius said, 'Who can go out but by the door? How is it that men will not walk if this account is right to these ways?'

Confucius said, 'Where solid qualities are in more than enough of hard things to be done, we have rough-living; where the hard things to be done are in more than enough of the solid qualities, we have the ways of behavior of an office worker. When the hard thngs to be done and solid qualities are equally mixed, we then have the man of good qualities.'

Confucius said, 'Man is born for uprightness. If a man does not keeps his uprightness, and still lives, his get away from death is the effect of only good chance.'

Confucius said, 'they who have knowledge of the truth are not equal to those who love it, and they who love it are not equal to those who get pleasure in it.'

Confucius said, 'To those whose powers are above second-rate behavior, the highest fields may be said. To those who are below second-rate behavior, the highest fields may not be said.'

Fan Ch'ih questioned what made up wise material. Confucius said, 'To give one's self seriously to the necessary acts in debt to men, and, while respecting body-less beings, to keep at a distance from them, may be named wise material.' He questioned about errorless good qualities. Confucius said, 'The man of good qualities makes the trouble to be overcome his first business, and good outcome only a coming after thought; -- this may be named errorless good qualities.'

Confucius said, 'The wise discover pleasure in water; those of good qualities discover pleasure in small mountains. The wise are action-bound; those of good qualities are quiet, untroubled. The wise are happy; those of good qualities are long-lived.'

Confucius said, 'Ch'i, by one change, would come to the State of Lu. Lu, by one change, would come to a State where true general rules had chief powers.'

Confucius said, 'A angled vessel without angles. -- A strange angled vessel! A strange angle vessel!'

Tsai Wo questioned, saying, 'A kind man, though it be told him, -- 'There is a man in the well' will go in after him, I take as probable.' Confucius said, 'Why rightly would he do so?' A higher man may be made to go to the well, but he cannot be made to go down into it. He may be made over-great use of, but he cannot be fooled.'

Confucius said, 'The higher man, very much learning all learning, and keeping himself under the holding-grip of the rules of right behavior, may in this way in the same way not go over what is right.'

Confucius having visited Nan-tsze, Tsze-lu was unpleased, on which Confucius used strong, shocking language, saying, 'wherein I have done wrongly, may the sky, on high say not me, may the sky, on high say not to me!'

Confucius said, 'errorless is the good quality which is if this account is right to the unchanging cruel! Uncommon for a long time has been its experience among the persons in general.' Tsze-kung said, 'take as probable the example of a man in a wide ranging way giving benefits on the persons in general, and able to help all, what would you say of him? Could he be named errorless of good qualities?' Confucius said, 'Why talk only of good qualities in connection with him? Is necessary he not have the qualities of a wise man? Even Yao and Shun were still helpful about this. 'Now the man of errorlessly good qualities, desiring to be made certain himself, has a look for in addition to make certain others; desiring to be made greater himself, he has a look for in addition to make greater others. 'To be able to judge of others by what is near in ourselves; -- this may be named the art of good qualities.'

Book VII. Shu R.

Confucius said, 'One letting through not a maker, having belief in and loving the old, I take a chance to make a comparison myself with our old P'ang.'

Confucius said, 'the quiet, without sound keeping up of knowledge; learning without end; and giving teaching to others without being tired: -- which one of these things is right for me?'

Confucius said, 'The letting go good qualities without right helping grow; the not completely having a discussion what is learned; not being able to move in the direction of rightness of which a knowledge is got; and not being able to change what is not good: -- these are the things which reason, need, cause me helpfulness.'

When Confucius was not took-up with business, his way was simple, not hard, and he looked pleased.

Confucius said, 'very much is my wasting away. For a long time, I have not had sleeping experiences, as I was used to do, that I saw the Duke of Chau.'

Confucius said, 'Let the will be put on the footway of right things to do. 'Let everything-done in what is good be firmly took in mind. 'Let errorless good qualities be given with. 'Let loosening and pleasure be discovered in the kind arts.'

Confucius said, 'From the man coming with his roughly parceled dried meat for my higher teaching, I have not ever refused teaching to any one.'

Confucius said, 'I do not open up the truth to one who is not ready to get knowledge, and not help out any one who is not troubled to give an account of himself. When I have presented one angle of a field of interest to any one, and he cannot from it learn the other three, I do not say over and over my teachings.'

When Confucius was taking food by the side of a man who was sad about a loss, he not ever took food to the full. He did not give a song on the same day in which he had been crying.

Confucius said to Yen Yuan, 'When called to office, to undertake its necessary acts; when not so named, to be placed away; -- it is only I and you who have got to this.' Tsze-lu said, 'If you had the guide of the armies of a great nation, whom would you have to act with you?' Confucius said, 'I would not have him to act with me, who will unarmed attack a great cat with bands of yellow, or cross a river without a boat, coming near to the end without any regret. My person working with must be the man who proceeds to acting full of helpfulness, who is interested of adjusting his designs, and then carries them into getting things done.'

Confucius said, 'If the look for things of value is safe to be good, though I rightly would become a well dressed person with whip in hand to get them, I will do so. As the look for may not be good, I will move after that which I love.'

The things in which Confucius put to use the greatest conscious of danger were – going without food, war, and disease.

When Confucius was in Ch'i, he heard the Shao, and for three months did not have knowledge of the taste of meat. 'I did not have in mind that'' he said, 'that music could have been made so very good, of highest qualities as this.'

Yen Yu said, 'is our chief for the ruler of Wei?' Tsze-kung said, 'surprise!! I will question him.' He went in as agreement, and said, 'what sort of men were Po-i and Shu-ch'i?' 'they were old persons full of value,' said Confucius. 'Did they have any protests because of their direction?' Confucius again answered, 'they had a look for to act full of good qualities, and they did so; what was there for them to protest about?' On this, Tsze-kung went out and said, 'our chief is not for him.'

Confucius said, 'With common rice to take as food, with water to drink, and my bended arm for a cushion; -- I have still deep pleasure in the middle of these things. Things of value and great respect gotten by unrighteousness, are to me as a resting cloud.'

Confucius said, 'If some years were added to my existence, I would give fifty to the learning of the Yi, and then I could come to be without great bad points.'

Confucius's frequent interests of talk were -- the complex verses, the History, and the support of the Rules of right behavior. On all these he frequently talked.

The Duke of Sheh questioned Tsze-lu about Confucius, and Tsze-lu did not answer him. Confucius said, 'Why did you not say to him, -- He is simply a man, who in his ready going after knowledge overlooks his food, who in the thing causing deep pleasure of its thing-done overlooks his causes of trouble, and who does not become conscious of that old times are coming on?'

Confucius said, 'I am not one who was born in the property of knowledge; I am one who is interested of days long past, and serious in having a look for it there.'

The fields on which Confucius did not talk, were -- special things, great acts of power, out of order and body-less beings.

Confucius said, 'When I walk in company with two others, they may work for me as my teachers. I will select their good qualities and move after them, their bad qualities and keep from them.'

Confucius said, 'the sky, on high produced the good quality that is in me. Hwan T'ui -- what can he do to me?'

Confucius said, 'Do you have in mind that, my supporters, that I have any things put out of view? I keep secret nothing from you. There is nothing which I do that is not made clear to you, my supporters; -- that is my way.'

There were four things which Confucius taught, -- letters, rules of right behavior, belief of seat of feeling, and truthfulness.

Confucius said, 'A wise man it is not mine to see; could I see a man of true power and good qualities that would please me.' Confucius said, 'A good man it is not mine to see; could I see a man had of unchangingness that would please me. 'having not and still acting on to have, with nothing in and still acting on to be full, made straight and narrow and still acting on to be at rest: -- it is hard with such qualities to have unchangingness.'

Confucius angled, -- but did not use a net. He let off gun, -- but not at birds resting.

Confucius said, 'There may be those who act without being certain why. I do not do so. Hearing much and selecting what is good and coming after it; seeing much and keeping it in memory: -- this is the second look of knowledge.'

It was hard to talk (making a profit and respectably) with the persons in general of Hu-hsiang, and a boy of that place having had a meeting with Confucius, the supporters doubted. Confucius said, 'I take in persons in general's come near to me without making myself responsible in connection with what they may do when they have gone away. Why must one be so serious? If a man make clean himself to wait upon me, I get him so made-clean, without being responsible for his past acts, behavior.'

Confucius said, 'is good qualities a thing far away, widely different? I desire to be of good qualities, and lo! Good qualities is at hand.'

The head of crime of Ch'an questioned if the Duke Chao knew right behavior, and Confucius said, 'He knew right behavior.' Confucius having gone away from, the head arched to Wu-ma Ch'i to come forward, and said, 'I have heard that the higher man is not a supporter. May the higher man be a supporter in addition? The Prince married a daughter of the house of Wu, of the same family name with himself, and called her, -- "The older Tsze of Wu." If the Prince knew right behavior, who does not have knowledge of it?' Wu-ma Ch'i made statement, account of these statements, and Confucius said, 'I am well-off and happily-placed! If I have any errors, persons in general are certain to have knowledge of them.'

When Confucius was in company with a person who was giving a song, if he gave a song well, he would make him say over and over the song, while he acted together with it with his own voice.

Confucius said, 'In letters I am possibly equal to other men, but the qualities of the higher man, doing in his acts what he puts about, is what I have not still got to.'

Confucius said, 'The wise man and the man of errorless good qualities; -- how I fearlessly attempt to position myself with them? It may simply be said of me, that I make an attempt to become such without end, and teach others without being tired.' Kung-hsi Hwa said, 'This is just what we, the supporters, cannot copy you in.'

Confucius being very ill, Tsze-lu made a request to let go of to make religious requests for him. He said, 'May such a thing be done?' Tsze-lu answered, 'it may. In the statements of approval it is said, "religious request has been made for you to the body-less beings of the upper and lower earths. Confucius said, 'my making religious requests has been for a long time.'

Confucius said, 'Money-wasting leads to getting up against authority, and simpleness to cruelness. It is better to be of poor qualities than to be with no respect for authority.'

Confucius said, 'the higher man is pleased and controlled, untroubled; the poor qualities man is always full of trouble.'

Confucius was warm, and still respectable; great, important, and still not violent, angry; respectful, and still simple.

Book VIII. T'AI-PO.

Confucius said, 'T'ai-po may be said to have got to the highest point of good quality acting. Three times he said no to the country led by a king, and the persons in general without knowledge of his reasons for doing could not put out their approval of his acts, behavior.'

Confucius said, 'respectfulness, without the rules of right behavior, becomes hard work do; carefulness, without the rules of right behavior, becomes being fearful; fearlessness, without the rules of right behavior, becomes getting up against authority; straightforwardness, without the rules of right behavior, becomes roughness. 'When those who are in high stations do well all their necessary acts to their relations, the persons in general are worked up to good quality. When old friends are taken care by them, the persons in general are kept safe from cruelness.'

The philosopher Tsang being ill, he called to him the supporters of his school, and said, 'uncover my feet, uncover my hands. It is said in the Book of verse, "we rightly would be fearful and careful, as if on the edge of a deep wide division, as if walking on thin ice," and so have I been. Now and hereafter, I have knowledge of my get away from all physical damage to my person, O you, my little boys and girls.'

The philosopher Tsang being ill, Meng Chang went to question how he was. Tsang said to him, 'When a bird is about to come to an end, its notes are sad about a loss; when a man is about to come to an end, his words are good. 'There are three general rules of behavior which the man of high position rightly would take into account specially important: -- that in his way of acting in public and ways he keep from violent acts and attentionlessness; that in keeping control of his face he keep near to as true; and that in his words and tones he keep far from lowness and wrong behavior or qualities. As to such matters as giving attention to the offering vessels, there are the right persons in authority for them.'

The philosopher Tsang said, 'naturally high-powered of mind with ableness, and still sending questions to those who were not so; had of much, and still sending questions to those had of little; having, as though he had not; full, and still adding himself as with nothing in; feelings-wounded against, and still going in, coming into no violent argument; formerly I had a friend who went after this way of behavior.'

The philosopher Tsang said, 'take as probable that there is a person who can be given into care with the responsibility of a young without father or mother Prince, and can be made officer with authority over a nation of a hundred li (money), and whom no serious need however great can make go from his sense of right: -- is such a man a higher man? He is a higher man in fact.'

The philosopher Tsang said, 'the officer may not be without measure of mind and with force of body or mind putting up with things. His weighting is weighty and his direction is long. 'Errorless good qualities is the weighting which he gives thought to it is his to support; -- is it not weighty? Only with death does his direction stop; -- is it not long?

Confucius said, 'it is by the complex verses that the mind is not worked up. 'It is by the Rules of right behavior that the qualities are put up. 'it is from Music that the end is gotten.'

Confucius said, 'The persons in general may be made to move after a footway of acting, but they may not be made to get it clearly.'

Confucius said, 'The man who is interested of having no fear and is not pleased with moneyless condition, will go on to getting up against authority. So will the man who is not of good qualities, when you keep your dislike of him to a far end.'

Confucius said, 'Though a man have powers as very good as those of the Duke of Chau, still if he be self-looking and cruel, those other things are really not of value being looked at.'

Confucius said, 'it is not simple to discover a man who has learned for three years without coming to be good.'

Confucius said, 'with straightforward belief he gets together the love of learning; keeping solid to death, he is completing the qualities of note of his direction. 'Such one will not move into an unsafe nation, and not be living in a disorganized one. When right general rules of government overcome in the country led by a king, he will make clear to himself; when they are down and out, he will keep secret. 'When a country is well-governed, moneyless condition and a cruel condition are things to be feeling shame of. When a country is ill-governed, good qualities and great respect are things to be feeling shame of.'

Confucius said, 'He who is not in any special office, has nothing to do with designs for the government of its necessary acts.'

Confucius said, 'When the music chief Chih first came into his office, the end of the Kwan Tsu was great; -- how it made full the ears!'

Confucius said, 'burningly-minded and still not upright; slow minded and still not full with attention; simple and still not straightforward: -- such persons I do not get clearly.'

Confucius said, 'learn as if you could not get to your purpose, and were always fearing in addition for fear that you rightly would not keep it.'

Confucius said, 'How great, important was the way in which Shun and Yu kept control of the empire, as if it were nothing to them!'

Confucius said, 'Great in fact was Yao as a ruler! How great, important was he! It is only the sky, on high that is good, great, important, and only Yao was like to it. How sizeable was his good qualities! The persons in general could get no name for it. 'How great, important was he in the works which he did! How very beautiful, first-rate in the polished rules which he made!'

Shun had five government representatives in another country, and the empire was well-governed. King Wu said, 'I have ten able government representatives in another country.' Confucius said, 'is not the saying that powers are hard to discover, true? Only when the lines of rulers of T'ang and Yu had a meeting, were they more than enough than in this of Chau, still there was a woman among them. The able government representatives in another country were no more than nine men. 'King Wan had two of the three parts of the empire, and with those he worked for the line of rulers of Yin. The good qualities of the house of Chau may be said to have got to the highest point in fact.'

Confucius said, 'I can discover no damaging mark in the qualities of Yu. He used himself common food and drink, but put on view the best offspring-like good thoughts and acts in the direction of the bodyless beings. His normal, common, uninteresting clothing were poor, but he put on view the best beautifulness in his offering hat and overall. He lived in a low house, but made use of all his power on the (field) drains and water-ways. I can discover nothing like a damaging mark in Yu.'

Book IX. Tsze HAN.

The fields of which Confucius not frequently spoke were -- profitableness, and in addition the meetings of the sky, on high, and errorless good qualities.

A man of the small country town of Ta-hsiang said, 'Great in fact is the philosopher K'ung! His learning is much, and still he does not form his name great, greatly respected by any special thing.' Confucius heard the observation, and said to his supporters, 'what will I experience? Will I experience two-wheeled competitions, or will I experience archery? I will experience two-wheeled competitions.'

Confucius said, 'The linen hat is that order by the rules of special public event, but now a silk one is put on. It is cheap, and I move after the common experience. 'The rules of special public event order the bending down under the space near door, but now the experience is to bend down only after going up it. That is acting as if others are unimportant. I go on to bend down under the space near door, though I put forward as opposite the common experience.'

There were four things from which Confucius was entirely free. He had no gone before opinions by reasoning, no not based on rules pre-selections, no hard-headedness, and no being guided by self-interest. Confucius was put in fear in K'wang. He said, 'After the death of King Wan, was not the cause of truth put here in me? 'If the sky, on high had desired to let this cause of truth come to destruction, then I, a future death-bound person rightly would not have got such a relation to that cause. While the sky, on high does not let the cause of truth come to destruction, what can the persons in general of K'wang do to me?'

A high officer questioned Tsze-kung, saying, 'May we not say that your chief is a wise man? How different is his power!' Tsze-kung said, 'certainly the sky, on high has given him unlimitedly power. He is about a wise man. And, in addition, his power is different.' Confucius heard of the talk and said, 'does the high officer have knowledge of me? When I was young, my condition was low, and as an outcome of that I gotten my power in many things, but they were of poor quality fields of interest. Is necessary that the higher man have such range of power? He does not need range of power.' Lao said, 'Confucius said, "having no public work, I gotten many arts."'

Confucius said, 'am I in fact had of knowledge? I am not being certain. But if a of poor qualities person, who comes into view quite nothing-like, question anything of me, I put it forward, out, on from one end to the other, and make it tired.'

Confucius said, 'The FANG bird does not come; the river sends forward, out, on no map: -- it is all over with me!'

When Confucius saw a person in a time of being sad for a loss dress, or anyone with the hat and upper and lower clothing of full dress, or a unable to see person, on observing them coming, going near, though they were younger than himself, he would get up, and if he had to go through by them, he would do so over-quickly.

Yen Yuan, in respect of Confucius's bodies of teaching, sighed and said, 'I looked up to them, and they seemed to become more high; I made an attempt to get into them, and they seemed to become more solid; I looked at them before me, and suddenly they seemed to be at the back. 'Confucius, by orderly way, expertly leads men on. He made greater my mind with learning, and taught me the limits of right behavior. 'When I desire to give over the learning of his bodies of teaching, I cannot do so, and having made use of all my power, there seems something to be positioned right up before me; but though I desire to move after and make ready keep of it, I really make discovery no way to do so.'

Confucius being very ill, Tsze-lu desired the supporters to act as representatives to him. All through a making-less of his disease, he said, 'Long has the behavior of Yu been not straightforward! By making seem to have representatives when I have them not, whom rightly would I put on upon? Rightly would I put on upon the sky, on high? 'In addition, than that I rightly would come to an end in the hands of government representatives in another country, is it not better that I rightly would come to an end in the hands of you, my supporters? And though I may not get a great put under earth, will I come to an end upon the road?'

Tsze-kung said, 'There is a beautiful jewel-stone here. Rightly would I put it up in a box and keep it? Or rightly would I have a look for a good price and give it in exchange for money?' Confucius said, give it in exchange for money! Give it in exchange for money! But I would wait for one to offer the price.'

Confucius was desiring to go and live among the nine rough tribes of the east. Someone said, 'they are without respect. How can you do such a thing?' Confucius said, 'If a higher man lived among them, what roughness would there be?'

Confucius said, 'I came back from Wei to Lu, and then the music was changed, and the parts in the Royal songs and warmly approving songs all discovered their right places.'

Confucius said, 'Overseas, to work for the high representatives and persons of high birth; at house, to work for one's father and older brothers; in all necessary acts to the dead, not to have no fear not to make use of one’s power; and not to be overcome of wine: -- which one of these things do I get to?'

Confucius positioned by a small river, said, 'it passes on just like this, not stopping day or night!'

Confucius said, 'I have not seen one who loves good qualities as he loves beauty.'

Confucius said, 'The action of learning may be made a comparison to what may come about in getting lifted up, higher a high slope. If there need but one basket of earth to complete the work, and I stop, the stopping is my own work. It may be made a comparison to making fall down the earth on the level floor. Though but one basket-full is put on at a time, the moving forward with it is my own going forward.'

Confucius said, 'Not ever flagging when I put forward, out, on anything to him; -- ah! That is Hui.'

Confucius said of Yen Yuan, 'cry of trouble! I saw his ongoing, frequent go forward. I not ever saw him stop in his forward development.'

Confucius said, 'There are examples in which the blade springs, but the plant does not go on to flower! There are examples where it flowers, but no fruit is coming after produced!'

Confucius said, 'A young person is to be looked upon with respect. How do we have knowledge of that his future will not be equal to our present? If he get the time of forty or fifty, and has not made himself heard of, then in fact he will not be of value being looked upon with respect.'

Confucius said, 'May men say no to agreement to the words of solid protest? But it is changing the acts, behavior because of them which is of great value. May men say no to be pleased with words of kind, quiet, not rough opinion? But it is unfolding their direction which is of great value. If a man be pleased with these words, but does not make clear their direction, and agrees to those, but does not change for the better his acts, behavior, I can really do nothing with him.'

Confucius said, 'Keep always-true behavior and trueness as first general rule. Have no friends not equal to yourself. When you have bad points, do not fear to let them go.'

Confucius said, 'The military chief of the forces of a wide, of great size state may be taken off, but the will of even a common man cannot be taken from him.'

Confucius said, 'Dressed himself in a feebly kept together long loose dress made by putting lines of stretching across two bits of material with hemp, still positioned by the side of men dressed in soft, thick hair on animals, and not feeling of shame; -- ah! it is Yu who is equal to this! '"He is not pleased with not any, he desires nothing; -- what can he do but what is good!"' Tsze-lu kept as going on all the time saying over again these words of the complex verse, when Confucius said, 'Those things are by no way enough to make up (errorless) qualities of note.'

Confucius said, 'When the year becomes cold, then we have knowledge of how the evergreen tree is the last to not keep their leaves.'

Confucius said, 'The wise are free from troubling feelings; the of-good-qualities from causes for being worked up; and the fearless from fear.'

Confucius said, 'There are some with whom we may learn, observe in common, but we will discover them unable to go in company with us to sense of right. Possibly we may go on with them to sense of right, but we will discover them unable to get put up in those in company with us. Or if we may get so put up in company with them, we will discover them unable to take in events taking place in company with us.'

How the flowers of the aspen-plum (fruit) make unregular motion and turn! Do I not have you in mind? But your house is far away. Confucius said, 'it is the need of thought about it. How is it far away?'

Book X. HEANG TANG.

Confucius, in his small country town, looked simple and straightforward, and as if he were not able to talk. When he was in the Prince's long in the family line place of religion, or in the place for hearing law processes, he said, made statement minutely on every point, but doing it carefully.

When he was waiting at place for hearing law processes, in talking with the great persons in authority of the lower degree in a scale, he said, made statement freely, but in a straightforward way; in talking with those of the higher degree in a scale, he did so smoothly, but through details. When the ruler was present, his way put on view respectful troubled feelings; it was serious, but self-controlled.

When the Prince called him to use him in the meeting (of friends) of a newcomer, his face appeared to change, and his legs to move forward with trouble. He sloped himself to the other persons in authority among whom he was positioned, moving his left or right arm, as their position needed, but keeping the skirts of his long loose dress before and behind evenly adjusted. He moved quickly forward, with his arms like the wings of a bird. When the person in another's place had gone away, he would state to the Prince, 'The newcomer is not turning round anymore.'

When he came in the great building of a ruler doorway, he seemed to curve his body, as if it were not enough to take him in. When he was positioned, he did not take up the middle of the way in; when he gone through in or out, he did not walk upon the board forming floor of doorway. When he was going past, through the free place of the Prince, his face appeared to change, and his legs to curve under him, and his words came as if he hardly had breath to complete them. He gone up the meeting hall, keeping up his long loose dress with both his hands, and his body bent; keeping in his breath in addition, as if he had fear to breathe. When he came out from the public, as soon as he had sloped down one step, he made a start to make loose his face, and had a pleased look. When he had got to the lowest part of the steps, he stepped forward rapidly to his place, with his arms like wings, and on taking it up, his way still made clear respectful troubled feelings.

When he was taking the rod of his ruler, he seemed to curve his body, as if he were not able to take its weight. He did not keep it higher than the position of the hands in making a knot, and not lower than their position in giving anything to another. His face seemed to change, and look fearful, and he moved his feet on as if they were gripped by something to the floor. In presenting the presents with which he was requested, he put on a quiet looks. At his private hearing, he looked highly pleased.

The higher man did not use a deep red-blue mixed or a red-brown color, in the ornaments of his dress. Even in his undress, he did not put on anything of a red or red-like color. In warm weather, he had a single bit of clothing either of rough or very thin feeling (look, structure), but he put on it put on view over an inner bit of clothing. Over young sheep's coat he put on a bit of clothing of black; over bird's coat one of white; and over sharp-nosed animal of dog family's coat one of yellow. The animal's coat long loose dress of his undress was long, with the right arm part short. He needed his sleeping dress to be half as long again as his body. When being at house, he used thick hair on animals of the thick-tailed, sharp-nosed animal of dog family or the badger. When he put off being sad about a loss, he put on all the added parts of the band for middle of body (girdle). His under-clothes, except when it was needed to be of the curtain form, were made of silk cut narrow above and wide under. He did not put on young sheep's coat or a black hat, on a event of kind words to person in trouble. On the first day of the month he put on his place for hearing law processes clothes and presented himself at place for hearing law processes.

When going without food, he thought it necessary to have his clothes brightly clean and made of linen cloth. When going without food, he thought it necessary to change his food, and in addition to change the place where he commonly was seated in the rooms in another's house.

He did like to have his rice in a highly detailed form cleaned, and not to have his cut to bits meat cut quite small. He did not take as food rice which had been damaged by heat or wet and turned acid, bitter, and not fish or meat which was gone. He did not take as food what was color-damaged, or what was of a bad taste, and not anything which was ill-cooked, or was not in time. He did not take as food meat which was not cut rightly, and not what was given out without its right dressing. Though there could be a wide, of great size amount of meat, he would not let what he took to be greater than the truly size for the rice. It was only in wine that he put down no limit for himself, but he did not let himself to be mixed up by it. He did not take wine and dried meat bought in the market. He was not ever without root with strong taste when he took food. He did not take much food. When he had been giving help to at the Prince's offering, he did not keep the meat which he got overnight. The meat of his family offering he did not keep over three days. If kept over three days, person’s in general could not take it as food. When taking food, he did not talk. When in bed, he did not talk. Though his food could be common rice and plant used for food soup, he would offer a little of it in offering with a serious, respectful air.

If his floor covering was not straight, he did not seat on it.

When the small town persons were drinking together, on those who took supplies workers going out, he went out straight away after. When the small town persons were going through their special public event to make go away disease-bound effects, he put on his place for hearing law processes clothes and got up on the of the east steps.

When he was sending approving questions to anyone in another nation, he arched twice as he went with the one who takes news to another away. Chi K'ang having sent him a present of medical substance to effect waste, he arched and got it, saying, 'I do not have knowledge of it. I have fear to taste it.'

The building for horses being burned down, when he was at place for hearing law processes, on his comeback he said, 'has any man been damaged?' He did not question about the horses.

When the Prince sent him a thing given of cooked meat, he would adjust his floor covering, first taste it, and then give it away to others. When the Prince sent him a thing given of undressed meat, he would have it cooked, and offer it to the bodyless beings of his earlier beings in the family line. When the Prince sent him a thing given of a living animal, he would keep it living. When he was in waiting, being present at on the Prince and joining in the amusement, the Prince only offered. He first tasted everything. When he was ill and the Prince came to go to him, he had his head to the east, made his place for hearing law processes clothes be put out on top over him, and took out his band for middle of body across them. When the Prince's order named him, without waiting for his vehicle to be kept together, he went at once.

When he came in the long-existing place of religion of the nation, he questioned about everything.

When any of his friends came to an end, if he had no relations who could be depended on for the necessary offices, he would say, 'I will put him under earth.' When a friend sent him a present, though it could be a vehicle and horses, he did not bend down. The only present for which he arched was that of the meat of offering.

In bed, he did not placed himself like a dead body. At house, he did not put on any giving attention to form way of acting in public. When he saw anyone in a time of being sad for a loss dress, though it could be a friend, he would change having a certain look; when he saw anyone having on body the hat of full dress, or a unable to see person, though he could be in his undress, he would give a sign of respect to them in a special way. To any person in time of being sad for a loss he arched forward to the cross-bar of his vehicle; he arched in the same way to anyone directing the tables of the persons living in a place. When he was at an amusement where there was an very much of food parcels before him, he would change having a certain look and get up. On a sudden loud noise of thunder, or a violent wind, he would change having a certain look.

When he was about to get on his vehicle, he would be positioned straight, keeping the cord. When he was in the vehicle, he did not turn his head quite round, he did not talk over-quickly, he did not point with his hands.

Seeing the face, it right away gets up. It flies round, and by and by comes to agreement. Confucius said, 'There is the much-colored female fowl on the small mountain bridge. At its time! At its time!' Tsze-lu made a motion to it. Three times it smelt him and then rose.

Book XI. Hsien TSIN.

Confucius said, 'The men of earlier times, in the fields of special public events and music were roughs, it is said, while the men of these later times, in special public events and music, are able men of good birth, position, education. 'If I have a right time to use those things, I move after the men of earlier times.'

Confucius said, 'Of those who were with me in Ch'an and Ts'ai, there are not any to be discovered to move into my door.' Of mark for their good quality sense of right and experience, there were Yen Yuan, Min Tsze-ch'ien, Zan Po-niu, and Chung-kung; for their power in talk, Tsai Wo and Tsze-kung; for their office activity powers, Zan Yu and Chi Lu; for their of writings learning, Tsze-yu and Tsze-hsia.

Confucius said, 'Hui gives me no help. There is nothing that I say in which he does not pleasure.'

Confucius said, 'Offspring-like in fact is Min Tsze-ch'ien! Other persons in general say nothing of him different from the statement of his parents and brothers.'

Nan Yung was frequently saying over again the lines about a white sign of power stone. Confucius gave him the daughter of his older brother to marry.

Chi K'ang questioned which of the supporters loved to learn. Confucius answered to him, 'There was Yen Hui; he loved to learn. Unhappily his fixed time was short, and he came to an end. Now there is no one who loves to learn, as he did.'

When Yen Yuan came to an end, Yen Lu requested the vehicle of Confucius to do trade in and get a hard outer covering for his son's chest for dead body. Confucius said, 'Everyone gives a name his son his son, if he has powers or has not powers. There was Li; when he came to an end, he had a chest for dead body but no hard outer covering. I would not walk on foot to get a hard outer covering for him, because, having moved after in the back part of the great persons in authority, it was not right that I rightly would walk on foot.'

When Yen Yuan came to an end, Confucius said, 'cry of trouble! The sky, on high is causing destruction to me! the sky, on high is causing destruction to me!'

When Yen Yuan came to an end, Confucius regretted him over limits, and the supporters who were with him said, 'Chief your deep sad feeling is more than enough?' 'is it more than enough?' said he. 'If I am not to regret the loss bitterly for this man, for whom rightly would I regret the loss of?'

When Yen Yuan came to an end, the supporters desired to give him a great putting a dead person under the earth event, and Confucius said, 'You may not do so.' The supporters did put him under earth in great polished and tasteful form. Confucius said, 'Hui did in the direction of me as his father. I have not been able to give him attention as my son. The error is not mine; it is right for you, O supporters.'

Chi Lu questioned about giving help to the body-less beings of the dead. Confucius said, 'While you are not able to give help to men, how can you give help to their body-less beings?' Chi Lu made an addition, 'I take a chance to question about death?' He was answered, 'While you do not have knowledge of existence, how can you have knowledge about death?'

The supporter Min was positioned by his side, looking smooth and right in details; Tsze-lu, looking well-marked and army-like; Zan Yu and Tsze-kung, with a free and straightforward way. Confucius was pleased. He said, 'Yu, there! -- he will not come to an end in a natural death.'

Some groups in Lu were going to take down and make again the Long Chief Money organization. Min Tsze-ch'ien said, 'Take as probable it were to be put right after its old way; -- why is it necessary be changed and made again?' Confucius said, 'This man not frequently says, makes statements; when he does, he is certain to be in touch with the point.'

Confucius said, 'what has the rounded stringed instrument with a long neck of Yu to do in my door?' The other supporters made a start not to respect Tsze-lu. Confucius said, 'Yu has gone up to the hall, though he has not still gone through into the inner rooms in another's house.'

Tsze-kung questioned which of the two, Shih or Shang, was the higher. Confucius said, 'Shih goes farther than the middle or half way, and Shang does not come up to it.' 'Then,' said Tsze-kung, 'the being higher, greater is with Shih, I take as probable.' Confucius said, 'To go farther is as wrong as to fall short.'

The head of the Chi family was with more money than the Duke of Chau had been, and still Ch'iu gotten together his taxes for him, and increased his great amount. Confucius said, 'He is no supporter of mine. My little boys and girls attack a great metal vessel and attack him.'

Ch'ai is simple. Shan is uninteresting. Shih is misleading. Yu is rough.

Confucius said, 'There is Hui! He has nearly got to errorless good quality. He is frequently in need. 'Ts'ze does not agree in the meetings of the sky, on high, and his goods are increased by him. Still his decisions are frequently right.'

Tsze-chang questioned what the qualities of the good man were. Confucius said, 'He does not walk in the footsteps of others, but in addition, he does not move into the room of the wise man.'

Confucius said, 'If, because a man's talk comes into view solid and straightforward, we let him to be a good man, is he really a higher man? Or is his serious air only in coming out?'

Tsze-lu questioned if he rightly would straight away keep into experience what he heard. Confucius said, 'There are your father and older brothers to be got the opinion of; -- why rightly would you act on that general rule of straight away taking into experience what you hear?' Zan Yu questioned the same, if he rightly would straight away put into experience what he heard, and Confucius answered, 'straight away put into experience what you hear.' Kung-hsi Hwa said, 'Yu questioned if he rightly would put straight away into experience what he heard, and you said, "There are your father and older brothers to be got the opinion of." Ch'iu questioned if he rightly would straight away keep into experience what he heard, and you said, "keep it straight away into experience." I, Ch'ih, am troubled, and take a chance to question you for a reason.' Confucius said, 'Ch'iu is giving up working and slow; as an outcome of that, I pushed him forward. Yu has more than his own part of energy; as an outcome of that I kept him back.'

Confucius was put in fear in K'wang and Yen Yuan fell at the back. Confucius, on his rejoining him, said, 'I thought you had came to an end.' Hui answered, 'While you were living, how rightly would I have belief to come to an end?'

Chi Tsze-zan questioned if Chung Yu and Zan Ch'iu could be named great government representatives. Confucius said, 'I thought you would question about some special beings, and you only question about Yu and Ch'iu! 'What is named a great government representative, is one who works for his Prince if this account is right to what is right, and when he gets he cannot do so, gives up. 'Now, in connection with Yu and Ch'iu, they may be named normal, common, uninteresting government representatives.' Tsze-zan said, 'Then they will always move after their chief; -- will they?' Confucius said, 'In an act of father-killing or chief-killing, they would not move after him.'

Tsze-lu got Tsze-kao got (time, place) fixed for governor of Pi. Confucius said, 'You are damaging a man's son.' Tsze-lu said, 'There are common persons in general and persons in authority; there are the high table in church of the body-less beings of the land and grain. Why must one read books before he can be thought out as to have learned?' Confucius said, 'it is on this account that I hate your smooth-tongued persons in general.'

Tsze-lu, Tsang Hsi, Zan Yu, and Kung-hsi Hwa were being seated by Confucius. He said to them, 'Though I am a day or so older than you, do not have that in mind. 'From day to day you are saying, "We are not within one's knowledge." If some ruler were to have knowledge of you, what would you like to do?' Tsze-lu over-quickly and lightly answered, 'take as probable the example of a State of ten thousand two-wheeled vehicles; let it be made straight and narrow between other wide, of great size nations; let it be in pain or trouble from attacking armies; and to this let there be added a time of no food and in all plants used for food: -- if I were believed in with the government of it, in three years' time I could make the persons in general to be well-marked, and to be conscious of the rules of righteous acts, behavior.' Confucius smiled at him. Turning to Yen Yu, he said, 'Ch'iu, what are your desires?' Ch'iu answered, 'take as probable a state of 60 or 70 Li square, or one of fifty or 60, and let me have the government of it; -- in three years' time, I could make enough, a great amount to commonly have existence among the persons in general. As to teaching them the general rules of right behavior, and music, I must wait for the get up of a higher man to do that.' 'What are your desires, Ch'ih,' said Confucius next to Kung-hsi Hwa. Ch'ih answered, 'I do not say that my ableness gets stretched out to these things, but I rightly would desire to learn them. At the services of the long-existing place of religion, and at the persons at of the Princes with the ruler, I rightly would like, dressed in the dark square-made long loose dress and the black linen hat, to act as a small helper.' Last of all, Confucius questioned Tsang Hsi, 'Tien, what are your desires?' Tien, coming to a short rest as he was playing on his rounded stringed instrument with a long neck, while it was still tight wire sounding, put down the instrument on one side, and got up. 'My desires,' he said, 'are different from the dear purposes of these three men of good birth, position, education.' 'What damage is there in that?' said Confucius; 'do you in addition, as well as they, say out your desires.' Tien then said, 'In this, the last month of spring, with the dress of the time all complete, in company with five or 6 young men who have taken to the hat, and 6 or seven boys, I would wash in the I, get pleasure out of the wind among the rain high table, and come back to the house giving a song.' Confucius made come to a stop a deep breath and said, 'I give my approval to Tien.' The three others having gone out, Tsang Hsi kept at the back, and said, 'what do you have in mind that of the words of these three friends?' Confucius answered, 'they simply told each one his desires.' Hsi went after, Chief, why did you smile at Yu?' He was answered, 'The managers of a State demands the rules of right behavior. His words were not simple, poor as an outcome of that I smiled at him.' Hsi again said, 'But was it not a State which Ch'iu put forward for himself?' The answer was, 'Yes; did you ever see lands of 60 or 70 Li or one of fifty or 60, which was not a state?' Once more, Hsi questioned 'And was it not a State which Ch'ih made an offer for himself?' Confucius again answered, 'Yes; who but Princes have to do with long-existing places of religion, and with public but the ruler? If Ch'ih were to be a small helper in these helps, who could be a great one?

Book XII. YEN YUAN.

Yen Yuan questioned about errorless good qualities. Confucius said, 'To control one's self and come back to right behavior, is errorless good qualities. If a man can for one day control him and come back to right behavior, all under the sky, on high will give errorless good qualities to him. Is the experience of errorless good qualities from a man himself, or is it from others?' Yen Yuan said, 'I request to question the steps of that process.' Confucius answered, 'look not at what is opposite to right behavior; give attention to not to what is opposite to right behavior; say not what is opposite to right behavior; make no moving which is opposite to right behavior.' Yen Yuan then said, 'Though I am short in amount of quick brain and power, I will make it my business to experience these teachings.'

Chung-kung questioned about errorless good qualities. Confucius said, 'it is, when you go overseas, to do to everyone as if you were taking a great person in another's place; to use the persons in general as if you were giving help to at a great offering; not to do to others as you would not desire done to yourself; to have no saying in low voices against you in the country, and not any in the family.' Chung-kung said, 'Though I am short in amount of quick brain and power, I will make it my business to experience these teachings.'

Sze-ma Niu questioned about errorless good qualities. Confucius said, 'The man of errorless good qualities is careful and slow in his way of talking!' 'Careful and slow in his way of talking!' said Niu; 'is this what is the sense of errorless good qualities?' Confucius said, 'When a man feels the trouble of doing, can he be other than careful and slow in talking?'

Sze-ma Niu questioned about the higher man. Confucius said, 'The higher man has not one or the other cause for being worked up and not fear.' 'Being without cause for being worked up or fear!' said Nui; 'does this make up what we give a name of the higher man?' Confucius said, 'When inside observation makes discovery of nothing wrong, what is there to be troubled about, what is there to fear?' Sze-ma Niu, full of cause for being worked up, said, 'Other men all have their brothers, I only have not.' Tsze-hsia said to him, 'There is the saying which I have heard: '"Death and existence have came to a decision about meeting; good qualities and great respect are dependent upon the sky, on high." 'Let the higher man not ever become feeble respectfully to order his own acts, behavior, and let him be respectful to others and watchful of right behavior: then all within the four seas will be his brothers. What has the higher man to do with being troubled because he has no brothers?'

Tsze-chang questioned what made up a quick brain. Confucius said, 'He with whom not one or the other false statements that gradually comes into the mind, and not statements that surprise like a wound in the soft body part, are good, may be named of quick, ready brain in fact. Yes, he with whom not one or the other takes in false statements, and not surprising statements, are good, may be named far-looking.'

Tsze-kung questioned about government. Confucius said, 'the necessary things of government are that there be enough of food, enough of military necessary things, and the belief of the persons in general in their ruler.' Tsze-kung said, 'If it cannot be helped, and one of these have to be done without, which of the three rightly would be gone first?' 'The military necessary things,' said Confucius. Tsze-kung again questioned, 'If it cannot be helped, and one of the still in the same way two have to be done without, which of them rightly would be gone?' Confucius answered, 'Part with the food. From of old, death has been the destiny of all men; but if the persons in general have no belief in their rulers, there is no position for the nation.'

Chi Tsze-ch'ang said, 'In a higher man it is only the important qualities which are needed; -- why rightly would we have a look for hard things to be done with ornament?' Tsze-kung said, 'cry of trouble! Your words, sir, make clear you to be a higher man, but four horses cannot overtake the tongue. Ornament is as substance; substance is as ornament. The skin, leather of a great cat with bands of yellow or a leopard covering of its hair, is like the skin, leather of a dog or a goat covering of its hair.'

The Duke Ai questioned of Yu Zo, saying, 'The year is one of little amount, and the profits are not enough; -- what is to be done?' Yu Zo answered to him, 'Why not simply tax the the persons in general?' 'With 2/10 said the Duke, 'I get not enough; -- how could I do with that system of 1/10?' Yu Zo answered, 'If the persons in general have enough, a great amount, their Prince will not be left to need by oneself. If the persons in general are in need, their Prince cannot get pleasure out of a great amount by oneself.'

Tsze-chang having questioned how good quality was to be put in respected position, and false beliefs to be discovered, Confucius said, 'keep always-true behavior and trueness as first general rule, and be moving as going on all the time to what is right; -- this is the way to put in respected position one's good quality. 'You love a man and desire him to live; you hate him and desire him to come to an end. Having desired him to live, you in addition desire him to come to an end. This is an example of false idea.’ “it may not be on account of her being full of money, still you come to make a point or amount unlike."'

The Duke Ching, of Ch'i, questioned Confucius about government. Confucius answered, 'There is government, when the Prince is Prince, and the head of town church is head of town church; when the father is father, and the son is son.' 'Good!' said the Duke; 'if, in fact; the Prince be not Prince, the head of town church not head of town church, the father not father, and the son not son, though I have my income, can I get pleasure out of it?'

Confucius said, 'Ah! it is Yu, who could with half a word come to agreement going to law!' Tsze-lu not ever slept over an undertaking.

Confucius said, 'In hearing acts of going to law, I am like any other body. What is necessary, however, is to cause the persons in general to have no acts of going to law.'

Tsze-chang questioned about government. Confucius said, 'the art of ruling is to keep its business before the mind without being tired, and to experience them with unchanging behavior.'

Confucius said, 'By with a wide stretch learning about all learning, and keeping himself under the grip of the rules of right behavior, one may in this way in the same way not make an error from what is right.'

Confucius said, 'The higher man has a look to make errorless the very good qualities of men, and does not have a look to make errorless their bad qualities. The poor quality man does the opposite of this.'

Chi K'ang questioned Confucius about government. Confucius answered, 'To rule has the sense of to put right. If you lead on the persons in general with rightness, who will have no fear not to be right?' Chi K'ang, troubled about the number of persons taking property in the nation, questioned Confucius about how to do away with them. Confucius said, 'If you, sir, were not having a desire for what is another's, though you rightly would reward them to do it, they would not take property of another.

Chi K'ang questioned Confucius about government, saying, 'what do you say to put to death the ones without a sense of right and wrong for the good of the persons with a sense of right?' Confucius answered, 'sir, in going on with your government, why rightly would you use putting to death at all? Let your seen desires be for what is good, and the persons in general will be good. The relation between chiefs and low persons is like that between the wind and the grass. The grass has to be bent, when the wind blows across it.'

Tsze-chang questioned 'what has the officer to be, who may be said to be noted, great?' Confucius said, 'what is it you give a name of being noted, great?' Tsze-chang answered, 'it is to be heard of through the nation, to be heard of throughout his stretched family group.' Confucius said, 'That is notedness, not of note. 'Now the man of note is solid and straightforward, and loves rightness. He goes into with care persons in general's words, and looks at their faces. He is troubled to act as unimportant himself to others. Such a man will be noted, great in the country; he will be noted, great in his stretched family group. 'As to the man of notedness, he takes to be true the looks of good quality, but his actions are been, fought against to it, and he rests in this qualities without any doubts about himself. Such a man will be heard of in the country; he will be heard of in the stretched family group.'

Fan Ch’ih walking around with Confucius under the trees about the rain high-tables, said, 'I take a chance to question how to make great good quality, to make right wrongdoing, and to make discovery of false beliefs.' Confucius said, 'truly a good question! 'If doing what is to be done be made the first business, and good outcome a coming after first or chief thought; -- is not this the way to make great good quality? To attack one's own badness and not attack that of others; -- is not this the way to make right wrongdoing? For a morning's violent feelings to have no respect for one's own existence, and get rolled in that of his father and mother; -- is not this a example of a false idea?

Fan Ch’ih questioned about kindness. Confucius said, 'it is to love all men.' He questioned about knowledge. Confucius said, 'it is to have knowledge of all men.' Fan Ch’ih did not immediately get clearly these answers. Confucius said, 'use the upright and put on one side all the twisted; -- in this way the twisted can be made to be upright.' Fan Ch’ih went away, and, seeing Tsze-hsia, he said to him, 'A Little while before, I had a meeting with our chief, and questioned him about knowledge. He said, 'use the upright, and put on one side all the twisted; -- in this way, the twisted will be made to be upright.' What did he have the sense of?' Tsze-hsia said, 'truly full is his saying! 'Shun, being in property of the country led by a king, selected from among all the persons in general, and used Kao-yao, on which all who were without of good quality went out from view. T'ang, being in property of the country led by a king, selected from among all the persons in general, and used I Yin, and all who were without good qualities gone from view.'

Tsze-kung questioned about friendship. Confucius said, 'truthfully protest wrongdoing to your friend, and expertly lead him on. If you discover him useless, stop. Do not shame yourself.'

The philosopher Tsang said, 'The higher man on grounds of society development meets with his friends, and by their friendship helps his good qualities.'

Book XIII. TSZE-LU.

Tsze-lu questioned about government. Confucius said, 'Go before the persons in general with your example, and be hard working in their business.' He requested farther teaching, and was answered, 'Be not tired (in these things).'

Chung-kung, being chief Head of the Chi family, questioned about government. Confucius said, 'use first the help of your different persons in authority, not be angry with small bad points, and lift to office men of good quality and powers.' Chung-kung said, 'How will I have knowledge of the men of good quality and power, so that I may lift them to office?' He was answered, 'Lift to office those whom you have knowledge of. As to those whom you do not have knowledge of, will others not taken care of them?'

Tsze-lu said, 'The ruler of Wei has been waiting for you, in order to with you give government. What will you take into account the first thing to be done?' Confucius answered, 'what is necessary is to put right names.' 'So, in fact!' said Tsze-lu. 'You are wide of the mark! Why is necessary there being such putting right?' Confucius said, 'How uneducated you are, Yu! A higher man, in connection to what he does not have knowledge, makes clear a careful self-control. 'If names be not right, language is not in agreement with the truth of things. If language be not in agreement with the truth of things, business cannot be taken on with good outcome. 'When business cannot be taken on with good outcome, right behaviors and music will not get on well. When right behaviors and music do not get well on punishments will not be rightly rewarded. When punishments are not rightly rewarded, the persons in general do not have knowledge of how to move hand or foot. 'As an outcome of that a higher man gives thought to it necessary that the names he uses may be said as right, and in addition that what he says, makes statement may be taken as right. What the higher man has need of, is just that in his words there may be nothing wrong.'

Fan Ch’ih requested to be taught the art of animal farming. Confucius said, 'I am not so good for that as an old married man.' He requested in addition to be taught gardening, and was answered, 'I am not so good for that as an old gardener.' Fan Ch’ih having gone out, Confucius said, 'A small man, in fact, is Fan Hsu! If a higher love right behavior, the persons in general will have no fear to be respectful. If he loves rightness, the persons in general will have no fear to take orders from his example. If he love good beliefs, the persons in general will have no fear to be straightforward. Now, when these things get, the persons in general from all quarters will come to him, directing their children on their backs; -- what need has he of a knowledge of the art of animal farming.

Confucius said, 'Though a man may be able to say from memory the three hundred complex verses, still if, when believed in with a government-related responsibility, he has knowledge of not how to act, or if, when sent to any quarter on a special work, he cannot give his answers unhelped, even taking into account the size, range, degree of his learning, of what useful use is it?'

Confucius said, 'When a Prince's own behavior is right, his government is working well without the giving out of orders. If his own behavior is not right, he may give out orders, but they will not be taken as guide, example, rule.'

Confucius said, 'The governments of Lu and Wei are brothers.'

Confucius said of Ching, a young noted offspring of the high-and-good family of Wei, that he knew the interests, money, goods of a family well. When he made a start to have way, he said, 'Ha! Here is a group!' When they were a little increased, he said, 'Ha! This is complete!' When he had become full of money, he said, 'Ha! This is very good!'

When Confucius went to Wei, Zan Yu acted as driver of his vehicle. Confucius observed, 'How great a number are the persons in general!' Yu said, 'Because they are in this way a great number, what more will be done for them?' 'Make them better,' was the answer. 'And when they have been made better, what more will be done?' Confucius said, 'teach them.'

Confucius said, 'If there were (any of the Princes) who would use me, in the order of twelve months, I rightly would have done something much. In three years, the government would be errorless.' Confucius said, '"If good men were to control a country coming one after another for a hundred years, they would be able to change the violently bad, and do without with death punishments." True in fact is this saying!'

Confucius said, 'If a truly royal ruler was to get up, it would still have need of a complete persons living time, and then good quality would overcome.'

Confucius said, 'If a head of town church make his own behavior right, what trouble will he have in giving help to government? If he cannot put himself right, what has he to do with putting right others?'

The supporter Zan coming back from the place for hearing law processes, Confucius said to him, 'How are you so late?' He answered, 'we had government business.' Confucius said, 'it must have been family business. If there had been government business, though I am not now in office, I rightly would have been got opinions about it.'

The Duke Ting questioned if there was a single punishment which could make a country well-to-do. Confucius answered, 'Such an effect cannot be looked on as to come from one punishment. 'There is a saying, however, which persons in general have -- "To be a Prince is hard; to be a head of town church is not simple, not hard." 'If a ruler has knowledge of this, -- the trouble of being a Prince, -- may there not be looked on as to come from this one punishment the well-to-do state of his country?' The Duke then said, 'is there a single punishment which can destruct a country?' Confucius answered, 'Such an effect as that cannot be looked as to come from one punishment. There is, however, the saying which persons in general have -- "I have no pleasure in being a Prince, but only in that no one can offer any being against state to what I say!" 'If a ruler's words be good, is it not in addition good that no one be against them? But if they are not good, and no one is against them, may there not be looked on as to come from this one punishment serious damage of his country?'

The Duke of Sheh questioned about government. Confucius said, 'Good government comes to be, when those who are near are made happy, and those who are far off get attraction.'

Tsze-hsia, being governor of Chu-fu, questioned about government. Confucius said, 'Do not be desiresful to have things done quickly; do not look at small better chances. Desire to have things done quickly keeps from being done completely. Looking at small better chances keeps great business from being done well.'

The Duke of Sheh detailed Confucius, saying, 'Among us here there are those who may be made upright in their acts, behavior. If their father has taken a sheep, they will take one who saw to the fact.' Confucius said, 'Among us, in our part of the country, those who are upright are different from this. The father keeps secret the bad behavior of the son, and the son keeps secret the bad behavior of the father. Uprightness is to be discovered in this.'

Fan Ch’ih questioned about errorless good qualities. Confucius said, 'it is, in having given up work, to be quietly serious; in the managers of a business, to be respectfully full with attention; in relations with others, to be strictly straightforward. Though a man go among rough, simple, natural, uneducated groups, these qualities may be take care of.'

Tsze-kung questioned saying, 'what qualities are necessary for a man having as owner to give him the right to be named an officer? Confucius said, 'He who in his behavior of himself keeps a sense of shame, and when sent to any quarter will not shame his Prince's power, deserves to be named an officer.' Tsze-kung went after, 'I take a chance to question who may be placed in the next lower position?' And he was said, 'He whom the circle of his relatives say to be offspring-like, whom his like-townspersons in general and persons living near say to be of a brother.' Again the supporter questioned, 'I take a chance to question about the part still next in order.' Confucius said, 'they are strong of purpose to be straightforward in what they say, and to do what they do. They are fixed mind-view little men. Still possibly they may make the next part.' Tsze-kung finally questioned, 'Of what sort are those of the present day, who make connection in government?' Confucius said 'Cry of trouble! They are so many bites and baskets, no value being taken into account.'

Confucius said, 'Because I cannot get men going after the middle, to whom I could say my teachings, I have to discover the burningly-minded and the carefully-thought. The burningly-minded will go forward and make ready keeping of truth; the carefully-thought will keep themselves from what is wrong.'

Confucius said, 'The persons in general of the south have a saying -- "A man without unchangingness cannot be either one with special powers or a medical man." Good! 'Changing in his good qualities, he will be visited with shame.' Confucius said, 'This comes about simply from not giving attention to the detailing of future events.'

Confucius said, 'The higher man is kind, but not loving; the of poor quality man is loving, but not kind.'

Confucius said, 'The superior man is kind, but not loving; the mean man is loving, but not kind.'

Tsze-kung questioned saying, 'what do you say of a man who is loved by all the persons of his part of town?' Confucius answered, 'we may not for that give our approval of him.' 'And what do you say of him who is hated by all the persons of his part of town?' Confucius said, 'we may not for that come to belief by reasoning that he is bad. It is better than either of these examples that the good in the one part of town love him, and the bad hate him.'

Confucius said, 'the higher man is simple, not hard to help and hard to please. If you attempt to please him in any way which is not in keeping with right, he will not be pleased. But in his use of men, he uses them if this account is right to their power. The poor-qualities man is hard to help, and simple, not hard to please. If you attempt to please him, though it is in a way which is not in keeping with right, he may be pleased. But in his use of men, he desires them to be equal to everything.'

Confucius said, 'The higher man has a respectable comfort without self-respect. The poor qualities man has self-respect without a respectable comfort.'

Confucius said, 'The solid, the ongoing, the simple, and the not putting oneself forward are near to good qualities.'

Tsze-lu questioned saying, 'what qualities are necessary a man has as owner to give him the right to be named a learner?' Confucius said, 'He has to be in this way, -- serious, important and smooth: -- among his friends, serious and important; among his brethren, smooth.'

Confucius said, 'Let a good man teach the persons in general seven years, and they may then in the same way be given work in war.'

Confucius said, 'To lead uneducated persons in general to war, is to send them away.'

Book XIV. Hsien Wan

Hsien questioned what was shameful. Confucius said, 'When good government overcomes in a nation, to be having thoughts only of payment for work; and, when bad government overcomes, to be having thoughts, in the same way, only of payment for work -- this is shameful.'

'When the love of being higher, greater, taking credit, bitter feelings, and wrongful desires are kept back, this may be thought errorless good qualities.' Confucius said, 'This may be looked upon as the thing done that is hard. But I do not have knowledge of that it is to be thought as errorless good qualities.'

Confucius said, 'The learner who puts great value on the love of comfort is not right to be thought a learner.

Confucius said, 'When good government overcomes in a nation, language may be high and well-marked, and actions the same. When bad government overcomes, the actions may be high and well-marked, but the language may be with some self-control.

Confucius said, 'The persons of good qualities will be safe to say without error, but those whose talk is good may not always be of good qualities. Men of sense are safe to be fearless, but those who are fearless may not always be men of sense.'

Nan-kung Kwo, putting forward a question to Confucius, said, 'I was knowledgeable at archery, and Ao could move a boat along upon the land, but neither of them came to an end a natural death. Yu and Chi personally worked at the hard works of art of animal farming and they became owners of the country led by a king.' Confucius made no answer; but when Nan-kung Kwo went out, he said, 'A higher man in fact is this! A respecter of good qualities in fact is this!'

Confucius said, higher men, and still not always of good qualities, there have been, cry of trouble! But there not ever has been a poor qualities man, and, at the same time, of good quality.'

Confucius said, 'May there be love which does not lead to fixedness with its purpose? Can there be truth which does not lead to the teaching of its purpose?'

Confucius said, 'In getting ready the government-related letter making note, P'i Shan first made the rough copy ; Shi-shu was looking at and had a discussion about its amounts; Tsze-yu, the manager of Foreign relations, then polished the form; and, at last, Tsze-ch'an of Tung-li gave it the right beautifulness and end.'

Someone questioned about Tsze-ch'an. Confucius said, 'He was a kind man.' He questioned about Tsze-hsi. Confucius said, 'That man! That man!' He questioned about Kwan chung. 'For him,' said Confucius, 'the great town of Pien, with three hundred families, was taken from the chief of the Po family, who did not complete a making a low sound word, though, to the end of his existence, he had only common rice to take as food.'

Confucius said, 'To be poor without making a low sound is hard. To be full of money without being happy is simple, not hard.'

Confucius said, 'Mang Kung-ch'o is more than right to be chief officer in the families of Chao and Wei, but he is not right to be great officer to either of the States Tang or Hsieh.'

Tsze-lu questioned what made up a COMPLETE man. Confucius said, 'Take as probable a man with the knowledge of Tsang Wu-chung, the being free from covetousness of Kung-ch'o, the behavior without fear of Chwang of Pien, and the of different sorts powers of Zan Ch'iu; make an addition to these the hard rules of right behavior and music: -- such a one could be take into account a COMPLETE man.' He then made an addition, 'But what is the need for a complete man of the present day to have all these things? The man, who in the view of profit, thinks of rightness; who in the view of danger is ready to give up his existence; and who does not overlook an old agreement however far back it gives: -- such a man may be taken into account a COMPLETE man.'

Confucius questioned Kung-ming Chia about Kung-shu Wan, saying, 'is it true that your chief talks not, laughs not, and takes not?' Kung-ming Chia answered, 'This has gotten up from the reporters going farther than the truth. -- My chief talks when it is the time to talk, and so men do not get tired of his talking. He laughs when there is right time to be happy, and so men do not get tired of his laughing. He takes when it is in harmony with rightness to do so, and so men do not get tired of his taking.' Confucius said, 'So! But is it so with him?'

Confucius said, 'Tsang Wu-chung, keeping control of Fang, questioned of the Duke of Lu to fix a person coming after to him in his family. Though it may be said that he was not using force with his ruler, I have belief he was.'

Confucius said, 'The Duke Wan of Tsin was full of tricks, not straightforward and not upright. The Duke Hwan of Ch'i was upright and not full of tricks.'

Tsze-lu said, 'The Duke Hwan caused his brother Chiu to be put to death, when Shao Hu came to an end with his chief, but Kwan Chung did not come to an end. May not I say that he was needing good qualities?' Confucius said, 'The Duke Hwan got together all the Princes together, and that not with fighting instruments of war and two-wheeled vehicles: -- it was all through the effect of Kwan Chung. Whose giving kindness was like his? Whose giving kindness was like his?'

Tsze-kung said, 'Kwan Chung, I get, was needing in good qualities. When the Duke Hwan caused his brother Chiu to be put to death, Kwan chung was not able to come to an end with him. In addition, he became first in rating head of town church to Hwan.' Confucius said, 'Kwan Chung acted as first in rating head of town church to the Duke Hwan, made him first of all the Princes, and united and put right the complete country led by a king. Down to the present day, the persons in general get pleasure out of the gifts which he gave. But for Kwan Chung, we rightly would now be having on body our hair unlimited, and the dress ornaments of our coats buttoning on the left side. 'Will you have need from him of the small trueness of common men and common women, who would do self-killing in a small river or waterway, no one being certain about anything about them?'

The great officer, Hsien, who had been family-beliefs head to Kung-shu Wan, gone up to the Prince's place for hearing law processes in company with Wan. Confucius, having heard of it, said, 'He would be right to be thought out as WAN (the able).'

Confucius was talking about the without a sense of right and wrong direction of the Duke Ling of Wei, when Ch'i K'ang said, 'because he is of such qualities, how is it he does keep his state?' Confucius said, 'The Chung-shu Yu has the overseeing organization of his persons in another's place and of strangers; the over-acting speaker, T'o, has the managers of a business of his long-existing place of religion; and Wang-sun Chia has the direction of the army and forces: -- with such persons in authority as these, how rightly would he not keep his state?'

Confucius said, 'He who talks without self-consciousness will discover it hard to make his words good.'

Chan Ch'ang put to death the Duke Chien of Ch'i. Confucius bathed, went to place for hearing law processes, and detailed the Duke Ai, saying, 'Chan Ch'ang has put to death his ruler. I request that you will undertake to punish him.' The Duke said, 'give details to the chiefs of the three families of it.' Confucius went away and said, 'Coming after in the back part of the great persons in authority, I did have no fear to represent such a field of interest, and my Prince says, "give details to the chiefs of the three families of it."' He went to the chiefs, and detailed them, but they would not act. Confucius then said, 'Coming after in the back part of the great persons in authority, I did have no fear to represent such a field of interest.'

Tsze-lu questioned how a ruler rightly would be worked for. Confucius said, 'Do not make over-great use of him, and, in addition, put up with him to his face.'

Confucius said, 'The forward development of the higher man is higher; the forward development of the of poor qualities man is down.'

Confucius said, 'In old times, men learned with a view to their own gettting better. In our time, men learn with a view to the approval of others.'

Chu Po-yu sent a person who takes news to another with friendly questions to Confucius. Confucius was seated with him, and questioned him. 'What,' said he, 'is your chief in?' The person who takes news to another answered, 'my chief is troubled to make his bad points a small number, but he has not gone well.' He then went out, and Confucius said, 'A person who takes news to another in fact! A person who takes news to another in fact!'

Confucius said, 'He who is not in any special office, has nothing to do with designs for the government of its necessary acts.'

The philosopher Tsang said, 'The higher man, in his thoughts, does not go out of his place.'

Confucius said, 'The higher man is small in his talk but goes over limits in his acts.'

Confucius said, 'The way of the higher man is times three, but I am not equal to it. Of good quality, he is free from troubles; wise, he is free from troubling feelings; fearless, he is free from fear. Tsze-Kung said, ‘chief, that is what you yourself say.'

Tsze-kung was in the tendencies of making comparison of men together. Confucius said, 'Tsze must have got to a high slope of qualities of note! Now, I have not free time for this.'

Confucius said, 'I will not be troubled about at men not having knowledge of me; I will be troubled about at my own need of ableness.'

Confucius said, 'He who does not see coming attempts to trick him, and not have in mind that beforehand of his not being had belief in, and still gets these things readily (when they take place); -- is he not a man of higher value?'

Wei-shang Mau said to Confucius, 'Ch'iu, how is it that you keep seating about? Is it not that you are an ideas-giving talker?' Confucius said, 'I do have fear to play the part of such a talker, but I hate hard-headedness.'

Confucius said, 'A horse is named a Ch'i, not because of its power, but because of its other good qualities.'

Someone said, 'what do you say about the general rule that physical damage rightly would be rewarded with kind acts?' Confucius said, 'With what then will you reward kind acts? 'Reward physical damage with right, and reward kindness with kindness.'

Confucius said, 'cry of trouble! There is no one that has knowledge of me.' Tsze-kung said, 'what do you have as purpose by in this way saying -- that no one has knowledge of you?' Confucius answered, 'I do not say in low voice against the sky, on high. I do not protest against men. My studies are placed on low, and my getting-into gets up high. But there is the sky, on high; -- that has knowledge of me!'

The Kung-po Liao, having talked ill of Tsze-lu to Chi-sun, Tsze-fu Ching-po detailed Confucius of it, saying, 'our chief is certainly being led wrongly by the Kung-po Liao, but I have still power enough left to cut Liao off, and make public his dead body in the market and in the place for hearing law processes.' Confucius said, 'If my general rules are to go forward, it is so ordered. If they are to fall to the floor, it is so ordered. What can the Kung-po Liao do where such ordering had a part?'

Confucius said, 'Some men of value go away from the earth. Some go away from special nations. Some go away because of looks without respect. Some go away because of self-opposite language.'

Confucius said, 'those who have done this are seven men.'

Tsze-lu event to go through the night in Shih-man, the way-in keeper said to him, 'whom do you come from?' Tsze-lu said, 'From Mr. K'ung.' 'it is he, -- is it not?' -- said the other, 'who has knowledge of the useless nature of the times and still will be doing them.'

Confucius was playing, one day, on a music stone in Wei, when a man, taking a dry, cut stems of grain basket, went through the door of the house where Confucius was, and said, 'his heart is full who so gives blows to the with music stone.' A little while after, he made an addition, 'How rightly viewed with low opinion is the one-ideaed hard-headedness those sounds put on view! When one is taken no note of, he has simply at once to give over his desire for public use. "Deep water have to be crossed with the clothes on; not deep water may be crossed with the clothes kept up."' Confucius said, 'How strong of purpose is he! But this is not hard!'

Tsze-chang said, 'what is the purpose when the Shu says that Kao-tsung, while observing the general imperial being sad about a loss, was for three years without talking?' Confucius said, 'Why have to Kao-tsung be taken to as an example of this? The old all did so. When the ruler came to an end, the persons in authority all gave attention to their quite a number of necessary acts, taking teachings from the first in rating head of town church for three years.'

Confucius said, 'When rulers love to observe the rules of right behavior, the persons in general give a reaction readily to the cries on them for support.'

Tsze-lu questioned what made up the higher man. Confucius said, 'The helping grow of himself in respect-bound done with great care.' 'And is this all?' said Tsze-lu. 'He educates himself so in connection with give rest to others,' was the answer. 'And is this all?' again questioned Tsze-lu. Confucius said, 'He educates himself so in connection with give rest to all the persons in general. He educates himself so in connection with give rest to all the persons in general: -- even Yao and Shun were still helpful about this.'

Yuan Zang was being seated with knees up on his back of foot, and so waited the come near of Confucius, who said to him, 'In being young not act as if unimportant as is right for a younger; in being a man doing nothing good enough for being handed down; and living on to old times in existence: -- this is to be a trouble.' With this he hit him on the stem, leg with his walking stick.

A young person of the small country town of Ch'ueh was used by Confucius to keep the notes between him and his newcomers. Someone questioned about him, saying, 'I take as probable he has made great forward development.' Confucius said, 'I observe that he is interested of taking up the seat of a full-grown man; I observe that he walks top of the arm to top of the arm with his old persons. He is not one who is having a look to make forward development in learning. He desires quickly to become a man.'

BOOK XV. WEI LING KUNG.

The Duke Ling of Wei questioned Confucius about art of moving army, ships in fighting. Confucius answered, 'I have heard all about offering vessels, but I have not learned military fields of interest.' On this, he took his starting the next day. When he was in Chan, their food parcels were put an end to, and his followers became so ill that they were unable to get up. Tsze-lu, with clear feeling against, said, 'has the higher man in the same way to have ongoing existence in this way?' Confucius said, 'The higher man may in fact have to have ongoing existence needs, but the poor quality man, when he is in need, gives way to uncontrolled overdoing one's pleasure.'

Confucius said, 'Ts'ze, you have in mind that, I take as probable, that I am one who learns many things and keeps them in memory?' Tsze-kung answered, 'Yes, -- but possibly it is not so?' 'No,' was the answer; 'I look for a oneness present everywhere.'

Confucius said, 'Yu, those who have knowledge of good qualities are a small number.'

Confucius said, 'May not Shun be given as an example as having ruled well without tiredness? What did he do? He did nothing but seriously and respectfully take up his royal seat.'

Tsze-chang questioned how a man rightly would guide himself, so in connection with being everywhere valued. Confucius said, 'Let his words be straightforward and truthful, and his actions respectable and done with care; -- such behavior may be done among the rough, simple, natural tribes of the South or the North. If his words be not straightforward and truthful and his actions not respectable and done with care, will he, with such behavior, be valued even in his one part of town? 'When he is getting up, let him see those two things, as it were, fronting him. When he is in a vehicle, let him see them made joined to the wood neck-bit of the working animals. Then may he coming after keep them into experience.' Tsze-chang wrote these opinions on the end of his window-frame.

Confucius said, 'truly straightforward was the history expert Yu. When good government overcame in his nation, he was like an arrow. When bad government overcame, he was like an arrow. A higher man in fact is Chu Po-yu! When good government overcomes in his nation, he is to be discovered in office. When bad government overcomes, he can roll his general rules up, and keep them in his chest.'

Confucius said, 'When a man may be talked with, not to talk to him is to make an error in statement, direction to the man. When a man may not be talked with, to talk to him is to make an error in statement, direction to our words. The wise make an error neither in connection with to their man and not to their words.'

Confucius said, 'The strong of purpose learner and the man of good qualities will not have a look for to live at the price of damaging their good qualities. They will even give up their lives to keep safe their good qualities complete.'

Tsze-kung questioned about the experience of good quality. Confucius said, 'The trained workman using machines, who desires to do his work well, must first sharpen his instruments. When you are living in any nation, take military arm with the most good among its great persons in authority, and make friends of the most persons of good qualities among its learners.'

Yen Yuan questioned how the government of a country rightly would be controlled. Confucius said, 'move after the devisions of the year of Hsia. 'Go on (transport) in the nation vehicle of Yin. 'Put on the public-event like hat of Chau. 'Let the music be the Shao with its wordless dances. Put out of mind the songs of Chang, and keep far from misleading talkers. The songs of Chang are loose, free; misleading talkers are dangerous.'

Confucius said, 'If a man take no thought about what is far away, he will discover feeling sad near at hand.'

Confucius said, 'it is all over! I have not seen one who loves good qualities as he loves beauty.'

Confucius said, 'was not Tsang Wan like one who had taken (property of another) his place, position? He knew the good qualities and the powers of Hui of Liu-hsia, and still did not get that he rightly would be with him in the place for hearing law processes.'

Confucius said, 'He who has need of much from himself and little from others, will keep himself from being the cause of bitter feelings.'

Confucius said, 'When a man is not in the tendencies of saying -- "what will I have in mind about this? What will I have in mind about this?" I could in fact do nothing with him!'

Confucius said, 'When a number of persons in general are together, for a complete day, without their talk turning on rightness, and when they are interested in doing the suggestions of a small sharpness; -- theirs is in fact a hard example.'

Confucius said, 'The higher man in everything gives thought to rightness to be most important. He acts it in harmony with the rules of right behavior. He takes it forward looking on oneself as unimportant. He completes it with trueness. This is in fact a higher man.'

Confucius said, 'The higher man is troubled by his need of ableness. He is not troubled by men not having knowledge of him.'

Confucius said, 'The higher man is not pleased with the thought of his name not being said-about after his death.'

Confucius said, 'what the higher man looks for is in himself. What the poor qualities man looks for is in others.'

Confucius said, 'The higher man is clean living, but does not argue. He is getting on well in company of others, but not a supporter.'

Confucius said, 'The higher man does not give help to a man simply on account of his words, and he not does put on one side good words because of the man.'

Tsze-kung questioned saying, 'is there one word which may work as a rule of experience for all one's existence?' Confucius said, 'is not equal-exchange such a word? What you do not need done to yourself, do not do to others.'

Confucius said, 'In my trading with men, whose wrongdoing do I make a protest about, whose goodness do I give words of warm approval to, farther than what is right? If I do sometimes go over limits in giving words of warm approval, there have to be reason for it in my test of the person. 'These persons in general supplied the reason why the three lines of rulers went after the footway of straightforwardness.'

Confucius said, 'Even in my early days, a history expert would let go of a space in his words, and he who had a horse would give for a time him to another to take a journey. Now, cry of trouble! There are no such things.'

Confucius said, 'Misleading words get mixed up with good quality. The need of putting-up in small matters gets mixed up with great designs.'

Confucius said, 'When the great number, mass hate a man, it is necessary to look into the example. When the great number, mass like a man, it is necessary to look into the example.'

Confucius said, 'A man can make greater the general rules which he comes after; those general rules do not make greater the man.'

Confucius said, 'to have bad points and not to change them for the better, -- this, in fact, rightly would be said having bad points.'

Confucius said, 'I have been the complete day without taking food, and the complete night without sleeping: -- took up with having thoughts. It was of no use. The better system is to learn.'

Confucius said, 'The purpose of the higher man is truth. Food is not his purpose. There is plowing; even in that there is sometimes need. So with learning; payment may be discovered in it. The higher man is troubled so that he rightly would not get truth; he is not troubled so that not moneyless condition rightly would come upon him.'

Confucius said, 'When a man's knowledge is enough to get to, and his good qualities are not enough to make him able to keep, whatever he may have got, he will not keep again. 'When his knowledge is enough to get to, and he has good qualities enough to keep tightly, if he cannot rule with self-respect, the persons in general will not respect him. 'When his knowledge is enough to get to, and he has good qualities enough to keep tightly; when he rules in addition with self-respect, still if he do his best to move the persons in general opposite to the rules of right behavior: full qualities of note are not gotten.'

Confucius said, 'The higher man cannot be within one's knowledge in little fields of interest; but he may be believed in with great business. The small man may not be believed in with great business, but he may be within one's knowledge in little fields of interest.'

Confucius said, 'good quality is more to man than either water or fire. I have seen men come to an end from walking on water and fire, but I have not ever seen a man come to an end from walking in the direction of good qualities.'

Confucius said, 'Let every man take into account good quality as what gives on himself. He may not give in in the operation of it even to his teacher.'

Confucius said, 'The higher man is correctly solid, and not solid only.'

Confucius said, 'A head of branch of government, in giving help to his Prince, respectfully sends out his necessary acts, and makes his payment a coming after first or chief thought.'

Confucius said, 'In teaching there rightly would be no separating qualities of divisions.'

Confucius said, 'those whose directions are different cannot make designs for one another.'

Confucius said, 'In language it is simply needed that it gives the sense.'

The music-chief, Mien, having named upon him, when they came to the steps, Confucius said, 'Here are the steps.' When they came to the floor covering for the person in another's place to be seated upon, he said, 'Here is the floor covering.' When all were seated, Confucius detailed him, saying, 'so and so is here; so and so is here.' The music-chief, Mien, having gone out, Tsze-chang questioned saying. 'Is it the rule to say to those things to the music-chief?' Confucius said, 'Yes. This is certainly the rule for those who lead the unable to see.'

BOOK XVI. KE SHE.

The head of the Chi family was going to attack Chwan-yu. Zan Yu and Chi-lu had a meeting with Confucius, and said, 'our chief, Chi, is going to start operations against Chwan-yu.' Confucius said, 'Ch'iu, is it not you who are in error here? 'Now, in connection to Chwan-yu, long before, an earlier king gave (person) a position as its ruler to be in authority over the offerings to the of the east Mang; in addition, it is in the middle of the lands of our state; and its ruler is a head of branch of government in straight connection with the ruler: -- What has your chief to do with attacking it?' Zan Yu said, 'our chief desires the thing; neither of us two representatives desires it.' Confucius said, 'Ch'iu, there are the words of Chau Zan, -- "When he may put forward, out, on his ableness, he takes his place in the lines of office; when he discovers himself unable to do so, he goes away from it. How can he be used as a guide to an unable to see man, who does not support him when unsafe, and not lift him up when fallen?" 'And farther, you talk wrongly. When a great cat with bands of yellow or rhinoceros gets away from his wire house; when a tortoise or part of hard, green jewel stone is damaged in its store-house:-- whose is the error?' Zan Yu said, 'But now, Chwan-yu is strong and near to Pi; if our chief do not now take it, it will hereafter be a sad feeling to his ones coming after.' Confucius said. 'Ch'iu, the higher man hates that saying no to say -- "I need such and such a thing," and framing accounts for the acts, behavior. 'I have heard that rulers of States and chiefs of families are not troubled so that not their persons in general rightly would be small number, but are troubled so that not they rightly would not keep their number of places; that they are not troubled with fears of moneyless condition, but are troubled with fears of a need of being made happy rest among the persons in general in their number of places. For when the persons in general keep their number of places, there will be no moneyless condition; when harmony overcomes, there will be no little amount of persons in general; and when there is such a made happy rest, there will be readily controlled troubles. 'So it is. -- as an outcome of that, if more far-away persons in general are not readily controlled, all the effects of not military society development and good quality are to be much-educated to have, get attention from them to be so; and when they have been so had attention, they have to be made happy and quiet, untroubled. 'Now, here are you, Yu and Ch'iu, giving help to your chief. More far-away persons in general are not readily controlled, and, with your help, he cannot have, get attention from them to him. In his own lands there are divisions and downfall, lettings go and separatings, and, with your help, he cannot keep it. 'And still he is making system design for these violent moving within the nation. -- I am in fear that the sad feeling of the Chi-sun family will not be on account of Chwan-yu, but will be discovered within the cover of their own place for hearing law processes.'

Confucius said, 'When good government overcomes in the empire, special public events, music, and military journeys for special purpose designed for punishment go on from the son of the sky, on high. When bad government overcomes in the empire, special public events, music, and military journeys for special purpose designed for punishment go on from the Princes. When these things go on from the Princes, as a rule, the examples will be small number in which they do keep their power in ten living-periods. When they go on from the Great persons in authority of the Princes, as a rule, the examples will be small number in which they do keep their power in five living-periods. When the less important representatives of the great persons in authority keep in their grip the orders of the nation, as a rule, the examples will be small number in which they do keep their power in three living-periods. 'When right general rules overcome in the country led by a king, government will not be in the hands of the Great persons in authority. 'When right general rules overcome in the country led by a king, there will be no discussions among the common persons in general.'

Confucius said, 'The income of the nation has left the high-and-good House now for five living-stages. The government has been in the hands of the Great persons in authority for four living-stages. On this account, the ones coming after of the three Hwan are made much less.'

Confucius said, 'There are three friendships which are better, and three which are wounding. Friendship with the upright; friendship with the straightforward; and friendship with the man of much observation: -- these are better. Friendship with the man of misleading airs; friendship with the soft ideas-giving; and friendship with the smooth-tongued: -- these are wounding.'

Confucius said, 'There are three things men discover pleasure in which are better, and three things they discover pleasure in which are wounding. To discover pleasure in the judging observation of special public events and music; to discover pleasure in talking of the goodness of others; to discover pleasure in having many good enough friends: -- these are better. To discover pleasure in over-free with money pleasures; to discover pleasure in uselessness and walking care-freely; to discover pleasure in the pleasures of having very good meal: -- these are wounding.'

Confucius said, 'There are three errors to which they who are in the existence of a man of good qualities and station are responsible. They may talk when it does not come to them to talk; -- this is named foolishness. They may not talk when it comes to them to talk; -- this is named putting out of view. They may talk without looking at the face of their higher man; -- this is named seeing loss.'

Confucius said, 'There are three things which the higher man guards against. In being young when the physical powers are not still certain, fixed, he guards against sex desire. When he is strong and the physical powers are full of force, he guards against angry-wording. When he is old, and the animal powers have gone bad, he guards against wrongful desires.'

Confucius said, 'There are three things of which the higher man stands in fear before. He stands in fear before of the orders of the sky, on high. He stands in fear before of great men. He stands in fear before of the words of wise men. 'The poor qualities man does not have knowledge of the orders of the sky, on high, and as an outcome of that is not positioned in fear before of them. He is without respect to great men. He makes sport of the words of wise men.'

Confucius said, 'those who are by birth with the property of knowledge are the highest part of men. Those who learn, and so, readily, get property of knowledge, are the one after. Those who are uninteresting and slow minded, and still take in the learning, are another part next to these. As to those who are uninteresting and slow minded and still do not learn; -- they are the lowest of the persons in general.'

Confucius said, 'The higher man has nine things which are controlled with him of thoughtful thought. In connection to the use of his eyes, he is troubled to see clearly. In connection to the use of his ears, he is troubled to hear clearly. In connection to his face, he is troubled that it rightly would be kind. In connection to his behavior, he is troubled that it rightly would be respectful. In connection to his use of words he is troubled that it rightly would be straightforward. In connection to his doing of business, he is troubled that it rightly would be respectfully done with care. In connection to what he doubts about, he is troubled to question others. When he is angry, he has idea of the difficulties (his violent feelings may get him rolled in). When he sees profit to be got, he thinks of rightness.'

Confucius said, 'Giving quiet thought to good, and going after it, as if they could not get it; giving quiet thought to wrongdoing, and getting away from it, as they would from forcing the hand into boiling water: I have seen such men, as I have heard such words. 'Living having given up work to learn, observe their directions, and doing frequently rightness to do their general rules: I have heard these words, but I have not seen such men.'

The Duke Ching of Ch'i had a thousand groups, each of four horses, but on the day of his death, the persons in general did not give him words of warm approval for a single good quality. Po-i and Shu-ch'i came to an end of strong desire at the foot of the Shau-yang mountain, and the persons in general, down to the present time, give them words of warm approval. 'Is not that saying pictured by this?' Ch'an K'ang questioned Po-yu, saying, 'Have you heard any teachings from your father different from what we have all heard?' Po-yu answered, 'No. He was positioned by oneself once, when I went through under the hall with quick steps, and said to me, "Have you learned the Complex verses?" On my answering "Not still," he made an addition, "If you do not learn the Complex verses, you will not be right to be talked with." I went away and learned the Complex verses. 'Another day, he was in the same way positioned by oneself, when I went through by under the hall with quick steps, and said to me, 'Have you learned the rules of right behavior?' On my answering 'Not still,' he made an addition, 'If you do not learn the rules of right behavior, your qualities cannot be put up.' I then went away, and learned the rules of right behavior. 'I have heard only these two things from him.' Ch'ang K'ang went away, and, quite given with great pleasure, said, 'I questioned one thing, and I have got three things. I have heard about the Complex verses. I have heard about the rules of right behavior. I have in addition heard that the higher man keeps far away self-control in the direction of his son.' The married woman of the Prince of a state is named by him FU ZAN. She gives a name to herself HSIAO T'UNG. The persons in general of the State give a name of her CHUN FU ZAN, and, to the persons in general of other nations, they give a name of her as K'WA HSIAO CHUN. The persons in general of other states in addition give a name of her CHUN FU ZAN.



BOOK XVII. YANG HO.

Yang Ho desired to see Confucius, but Confucius would not go to see him. On this, he sent a pig to Confucius, who, having selected a time when Ho was not at house, went to make payment of his respects for the pig given. He met him, however, on the way. Ho said to Confucius, 'Come, let me talk with you.' He then questioned, 'May he be named kind who keeps his jewel in his heart, and lets go of his country to orderless mind?' Confucius answered, 'No.' 'May he be named wise, who is troubled to be took up in public use, and still is frequently not keeping the chance of being so?' Confucius again said, 'No.' 'The days and months are going past, going through away; the years do not wait for us.' Confucius said, 'Right; I will go into office.'

Confucius said, 'By nature men are nearly the same; by experience, they get to be widely separate.'

Confucius said, 'There are only the wise of the highest part, and the slow minded of the lowest part, who cannot be changed.'

Confucius, having come to Wu-ch'ang, heard there the sound of corded instruments and giving a song. Well pleased and smiling, he said, 'Why use a ox knife to put to death a fowl?' Tsze-yu answered, 'formerly, chief, I heard you say, -- "When the man of high station is well given teaching, he loves men; when the man of low station is well given teaching, he is easily ruled."' Confucius said, 'my supporters, Yen's words are right. What I said was only in sport.'

Kung-shan Fu-zao, when he was keeping Pi, and in a behavior of war against authority, made a request to come for Confucius to go to him, who was quite had a tendency to go. Tsze-lu was displeased, and said, 'in fact, you cannot go! Why is necessary that you have in mind going to see Kung-shan?' Confucius said, 'may it be without some reason that he has made request for me to come? If anyone use me, may I not make an of the east Chau?'

Tsze-chang questioned Confucius about errorless good qualities. Confucius said, 'To be able to experience five things everywhere under the sky, on high forms errorless good qualities.' He requested to question what they were, and was said, 'serious air, free-giving of seat of feeling, trueness, seriously, and kind acts. If you are serious, you will not be given attention without respect. If you are giving freely, kind, you will get all. If you are straightforward, persons in general will rest belief in you. If you are serious, you will do much. If you are kind, this will make able you to use the services of others.

Pi Hsi making request to go to him, Confucius was a tendency to go. Tsze-lu said, 'Chief, formerly I have heard you say, "When a man in his own person is responsible for wrongdoing, a higher man will not get together with him." Pi Hsi is in war against authority, keeping property of Chung-mau; if you go to him, what will be said?' Confucius said, 'Yes, I did use these words. But is it not said, that, if a thing be really hard, it may be turned into small bits without being made thin? Is it not said, that, if a thing be really white, it may be made full in a dark liquid without being made black? 'Am I a bitter vessel! How can I be hung up out of the way of being taken as food?'

Confucius said, 'Yu, have you heard the 6 words to which are joined 6 cloudings?' Yu answered, 'I have not.' Take a seat, and I will say them to you. 'There is the love of being kind without the love of learning; -- the clouding here leads to a foolish condition of being simple. There is the love of having knowledge without the love of learning; -- the clouding here leads to wasting of mind. There is the love of being straightforward without the love of learning; -- the clouding here leads to a wounding giving no attention to effects. There is the love of straightforwardness without the love of learning; -- the clouding here leads to roughness. There is the love of fearlessness without the love of learning; -- the clouding here leads to getting up against authority. There is the love of solidity without the love of learning; -- the clouding here leads to wasting acts, behavior.'

Confucius said, 'my sons and daughters why do you not learn the Book of great thought? 'The complex verses work to give force to the mind. 'They may be used for purposes of quiet thought. 'They teach the art of grouping well with company. 'They make clear to how to keep control of bitter feelings. 'From them you learn the more nearest right thing to do of giving help to one's father, and the more far-away one of giving help to one's Prince. 'From them we become largely knowledgeable with the names of birds, animals, and plants.'

Confucius said to Po-yu, 'Do you give yourself to the Chau-nan and the Shao-nan. The man, who has not learned the Chau-nan and the Shao-nan, is like one who gets up with his face right against a wall. Is he not so?'

Confucius said, '"it is if this account is right to the rules of right behavior," they say. -- "it is if this account is right to the rules of right behavior," they say. Are jewel-stones and silk all that had the sense by right behavior? "It is music," they say. -- "it is music," they say. Are bells and drums all that had the sense by music?' Confucius said, 'He who puts on a look of hard solidity, while in the mind and heart he is not so strong, is like one of the small, of poor quality persons in general; -- yes, is he not like the person taking property who comes loose through, or goes up over, a wall?'

Confucius said, 'Your good, careful persons in general of the small country towns are the persons taking good qualities.'

Confucius said, 'To say, as we go on, what we have heard on the way, is to put away our good qualities.'

Confucius said, 'There are those poor quality living beings! How not possible it is in company with them to work for one's Prince! 'While they have not got their purposes, their cause for being worked up is how to get them. When they have got them, their cause for being worked up is so that they rightly would keep them. 'When they are troubled so that no such things be lost, there is nothing to which they will not go on to.'

Confucius said, 'In the old times, men had three bad points, which now possibly are not to be discovered. 'The high-mindedness of days long past made clear itself in having not respect for small things; the high-mindedness of the present day makes clear itself in being rough over doing one's pleasure. The hard self-respect of days long past made clear itself in serious self-respect; the hard self-respect of the present day makes clear itself in given to angry words foolishness. The foolish act of days long past made clear itself in straightforwardness; the foolish act of the present day makes clear itself in very delicate tricks.'

Confucius said, 'High-quality words and ideas-giving looks are not frequently connected with good qualities.'

Confucius said, 'I hate the way in which red-blue mixed color takes away the bright effect of bright red colouring-substance. I hate the way in which the songs of Chang get mixed up with the music of the Ya. I hate those who with their sharp mouths put an end to countries with kings and families.'

Confucius said, 'I would have a better opinion of not talking.' Tsze-kung said, 'If you, chief, do not talk, what will we, your supporters, have to record?' Confucius said, 'does the sky, on high talk? The four divisions of the year go after their directions, and all things are on all the time being produced, but does the sky, on high say anything?'

Zu Pei desired to see Confucius, but Confucius said no, on the reason of being ill, to see him. When the one taking this note went out at the door, (Confucius) took his rounded stringed instrument with a long neck and gave a song to it, in order that Pei could hear him.

Tsai Wo questioned about the three years' being sad about a loss for father and mother, saying that one year was long enough. 'If the higher man,' said he, 'keeps from for three years from the observances of right behavior, those observances will be quite lost. If for three years he keeps from music, music will be given to destruction. 'within a year the old grain is made tired, and the new grain has sprung up, and, in getting fire by rubbing, we go through all the changes of wood for that purpose. After a complete year, the time of being sad for a loss may stop.' Confucius said, 'If you were, after a year, to take as food good rice, and put on ornament needlework clothing, would you sense at rest?' 'I rightly would,' answered Wo. Confucius said, 'If you can sense at rest, do it. But a higher man, during the complete time of being sad for a loss, does not get pleasure out of pleasing food which he may take as food, and not getting pleasure from music which he may hear. He in addition does not sense at rest, if he is with comfort tightly fixed. As an outcome of that he does not do what you put forward. But now you sense at rest and may do it.' Tsai Wo then went out, and Confucius said, 'This makes clear Yu's need of good qualities. It is not till a very young person is three years old that it is let to let go of the arms of its father and mother. And the three years' of being sad for a loss is generally observed throughout the empire. Did Yu get pleasure out of the three years' love of his father and mother?'

Confucius said, 'Hard it is to work with him, who will give overmuch himself with food the complete day, without putting to use his mind to anything good! Are there not playing persons and sort of board amusement players? To be one of these would still be better than doing nothing at all.'

Tsze-lu said, 'does the higher man respect fearlessness?' Confucius said, 'The higher man holds rightness to be of highest importance. A man in a higher place, position, having fearlessness without rightness, will be responsible for wrongdoing of getting up against authority; one of the lower persons in general having fearlessness without rightness, will do property-taking.'

Tsze-kung said, 'has the higher man his feelings of hate?' Confucius said, 'He has his feelings of hate. He hates those who make public the wrongdoing of others. He hates the man who, being in a low station, talks ill of his chiefs, guides. He hates those who have fearlessness only, and are unobserving of right behavior. He hates those who are forward and strong of purpose, and, at the same time, made, became small in clear knowledge.' Confucius then questioned, 'Ts'ze, have you in addition your feeling of hates?' Tsze-kung answered, 'I hate those who open out fields of interest, and give the knowledge to their wise material. I hate those who are only putting themselves forward, and have in mind that that they are fearless. I hate those who make within one’s knowledge secrets, and have in mind that that they are straightforward.'

Confucius said, 'Of all persons in general, girls and lowly workers are the most hard to act rightly to. If you are everyday with them, they do not keep their limited self-importance. If you keep back in the direction of them, they are unpleased.'

Confucius said, 'When a man at forty is the purpose of dislike, he will always go on what he is.'

BOOK XVIII. WEI TSZE.

The Viscount of Wei took away from the place for hearing law processes. The Viscount of Chi became a person as property to Chau. Pi-kan protested with him and came to an end. Confucius said, 'The Yin line of rulers had these three men of good qualities.'

Hui of Liu-hsia being chief crime-related judge was three times sent away from his office. Someone said to him, 'is it not still time for you, sir, to let go of this?' He answered, 'Giving help to men in an upright way, where will I go to, and not experience such a three times-redone letting go? If I select to work for men in a way against the law, what need is there for me to let go of the country of my father and mother?'

The Duke Ching of Ch'i, with statement, direction as to the way in which he rightly would give attention to Confucius, said, 'I cannot give attention to him as I would the chief of the Chi family. I will give attention to him in a way between that given to the chief of the Chi, and that given to the chief of the Mang family.' He in addition said, 'I am old; I cannot use his bodies of teaching.'

Confucius started his moving away.

The persons in general of Ch'i sent to Lu female players and writers of music, which Chi Hwan let into, and for three days no place for hearing law processes was gripped. Confucius started his moving away.

The person off his head of Ch'u, Chieh-yu, went through by Confucius, giving a song and saying, 'O Fang! O Fang! How is your good qualities become worse! As to the past, sharp words are of no use; but the future may still be given against. Give up your pointless going after. Give up your pointless going after. Great danger is in store for those who now make connection in business of government.'

Confucius got off and desired to talk with him, but Chieh-yu moved quickly away, so that he could not talk with him.

Ch'ang-tsu and Chieh-ni were at work in the field together, when Confucius went through by them, and sent Tsze-lu to question for the way across the river. Ch'ang-tsu said, 'Who is he that holds the guiding cords in the carriage there?' Tsze-lu told him, 'it is K'ung Ch'iu.' 'Is it not K'ung Ch'iu of Lu?' questioned he. 'Yes,' was the answer, to which the other rejoined, 'He knows the way go across the river.' Tsze-lu then questioned of Chieh-ni, who said to him, 'Who are you, sir?' He answered, 'I am Chung Yu.' 'Are you not the supporter of K'ung Ch'iu of Lu?' questioned the other. 'I am,' answered he, and then Chieh-ni said to him, 'Disorder like an increasing coming of water over land, covers all over the complete empire, and who is he that will change its state for you? Then come after one who merely takes away from this one and that one, had you not better move after those who have moved away from the everywhere as a group?' With this he fell to covering up the seed, and went forward with his work, without stopping. Tsze-lu went and stated their note, when Confucius observed with a deep breath, 'it is not possible to get together with birds and animals, as if they were the same with us. If I get together not with these persons in general, -- with mankind, -- with whom will I get together? If right general rules overcame through the empire, there would be no use for me to change its state.'

Tsze-lu, coming after Confucius, happened to fall at the back, when he met an old man, taking across his top of the arm on a walking stick a basket for waste plants. Tsze-lu said to him, 'Have you seen my chief, sir!' The old man answered, 'your four legs or arms are unnatural to do hard work; you cannot see what is different in the five kinds of grain: -- who is your chief?' With this, he planted his walking stick in the floor, and went forward to take out waste growth. Tsze-lu joined his hands across his chest, and got up before him. The old man kept Tsze-lu to go through the night in his house, put to death a fowl, got ready small-seeded grass, and had very good meal with him. He in addition presented to him his two sons. The one after day, Tsze-lu went on his way, and stated his experience of great interest. Confucius said, 'He is a person keeping to oneself,' and sent Tsze-lu back to see him again, but when he got to the place, the old man was gone. Tsze-lu then said to the family, 'Not to take office is not righteous. If the relations between old and young may be done take care, how is it that he make of no effect the necessary acts that rightly would be observed between ruler and representatives? Desiring to support his own person cleanliness, he lets that great relation to come to orderless mind. A higher man takes office, and doing the righteous necessary acts being the property of it. As to the shortcoming of right general rules to make forward development, he has knowledge of that.'

The men who have gone away to right not to be public from the everywhere have been Po-i, Shu-ch'i, Yu-chung, I-yi, Chu-chang, Hui of Liu-hsia, and Shao-lien. Confucius said, 'saying no to give up their wills, or to take orders from any bad quality sign in their persons; -- such, I have in mind that, were Po-i and Shu-ch'i. 'it may be said of Hui of Liu-hsia, and of Shao-lien, that they gave up their wills, and given in to become bad in their persons, but their words was like with reason, and their actions were such as men are troubled to see. This is all that is to be of note in them. 'it may be said of Yu-chung and I-yi, that, while they kept secret themselves in their shutting-off, they gave an authority to do to their words; but, in their persons, they did well in keeping safe their degree of cleanliness, and, in their having given up work, they acted if this account is right to the need of the times. 'I am different from all these. I have no direction for which I am preselected, and no direction against which I am preselected.'

The chief, most important music chief, Chih, went to Ch'i. Kan, Confucius of the band at the second meal, went to Ch'u. Liao, the band chief at the third meal, went to Ts'ai. Chueh, the band chief at the fourth meal, went to Ch'in. Fang-shu, the hollow instrument of music chief, took away to the north of the river. Wu, Confucius of the hand hollow instrument of music, took away to the Han. Yang, the helper music chief, and Hsiang, chief of the with music stone, took away to an island in the sea.

The Duke of Chau talked in public to his son, the Duke of Lu, saying, 'The of good qualities Prince does take care of his relations. He does not cause the great representatives to protest at his not using them. Without some great cause, he does not let go from their offices the ones of old families. He does not look for in one man powers for every use.' To Chau was the property of the eight persons in authority, Po-ta, Po-kwo, Chung-tu, Chung-hwu, Shu-ya, Shu-hsia, Chi-sui, and Chi-kwa.

BOOK XIX. TSZE-CHANG.

Tsze-chang said, 'The learner of letters, trained for public right thing to do, seeing suggestion of danger, is got ready to give up his existence. When the chance of profit is presented to him, he has opinion, ideas of rightness. In giving up, his thoughts are respectful. In time of being sad for a loss his thoughts are about the deep sad feeling which he rightly would sense. Such a man has our approval in fact.'

Tsze-chang said, 'When a man keeps tightly to good qualities, but without looking for to make it greater, and has belief in right sense of right, but without solid trueness, what account can be made of his existence or non-existence?'

The supporters of Tsze-hsia questioned Tsze-chang about the general rules that rightly would make common relations. Tsze-chang questioned 'what does Tsze-hsia say on the field?' They answered, 'Tsze-hsia says: -- "get together with those who can better you. Put away from you those who cannot do so."' Tsze-chang observed, 'This is different from what I have learned. The higher man gives great respect the persons with powers and of good qualities, and comes with all. He gives warm approval to the good, and says words of regret to the not able. Am I having great powers and good qualities? -- who is there among men whom I will not take with? Am I without powers and good qualities? -- men will put me away from them. What have we to do with the sending away of others?'

Tsze-hsia said, 'Even in rougher quality observations and work there is something of value being looked at; but if it be attempted to keep them out to what is far away, widely different, there is a danger of their getting knowledge of unusable. As an outcome of that, the higher man does not experience them.'

Tsze-hsia said, 'He, who from day to day (be conscious) takes conciously what he has not still, and from month to month does not overlook what he has got to, may be said in fact to love to learn.' Tsze-hsia said, 'There are learning in a wide ranging way, and having a solid and straightforward direction; questioning with seriously, and giving sign with self-use: -- good quality is in such a direction.'

Tsze-hsia said, 'trained workmen using machines have their stores to be living in, in order to do their works. The higher man learns, in order to get to the best of his sense of right.'

Tsze-hsia said, 'The poor quality man is certain to make seem right his bad points.'

Tsze-hsia said, 'The higher man undergoes three changes. Looked at from a distance, he comes into view hard; when came, gone near, he is warm; when he is heard to talk, his language is solid and certain of decisions.'

Tsze-hsia said, 'The higher man, having got their self-belief, may then make over-great use of works on his persons in general. If he has not gotten their self-belief, they will have in mind that that he is keeping them under by force. Having got the self-belief of his Prince, one may then protest with him. If he has not gotten his self-belief, the Prince will have in mind that that he is talking ill of him.'

Tsze-hsia said, 'When a person does not go against the division line in the great good qualities, he may go through and go over it in the small good qualities.'

Tsze-yu said, 'The supporters of Tsze-hsia, in sending down small drops and cleaning the land, in answering and answering, in moving forward and going back are able enough. But these are only the branches of learning, and they are left without knowledge of what is most important. -- How can they be given credit as taught enough?' Tsze-hsia heard of the statement, saying and said, 'cry of trouble! Yen Yu is wrong. If this account is right to the way of the higher man in teaching, what divisions of an organization are there which he gives thought to of first in rating importance, and gives to? What are there which he gives thought to of coming after first or chief importance, and lets himself to be unworking about? But as in the example of plants, which are mixed, of different sorts in harmony with their parts, so he gives out with his supporters. How can the way of a higher man be such in connection with make foolish persons of any of them? Is it not the wise man by himself, who can put together in one the starting and the ending of learning?'

Tsze-hsia said, 'The officer, having sent out all his necessary acts, rightly would give his free time to learning. The learner, having completed his learning, rightly would put himself to be an officer.

' Tsze-hsia said, being sad about a loss, having been taken to the best degree of deep sad feeling, rightly would stop with that.'

Tsze-hsia said, 'my friend Chang is able to do things which are hard to be done, but still he is not of errorless good qualities.'

The philosopher Tsang said, 'How important looking is the way of Chang! It is hard in company with him to experience good qualities.'

The philosopher Tsang said, 'I heard this from our chief: -- "men may not have made clear what is in them to the full size, range, degree, and still they will be discovered to do so, on special event of time of being sad for a loss for their father and mother."'

The philosopher Tsang said, 'I have heard this from our chief: -- "The offspring-like good thoughts and acts of Mang Chwang, in other fields of interest, was what other men are having the necessary qualities to, but, as seen in his not changing the representatives of his father, and not his father's form of government, it is hard to be got to."'

The chief of the Mang family having given Yang Fu a position to be chief crime-related judge, the later got the opinion of the philosopher Tsang. Tsang said, 'The rulers have become feeble in their necessary acts, and the persons in general with effect coming after have been disorganised, for a long time. When you have discovered out the truth of any statement against, be deeply sad feelings for and regret them, and do not sense deep pleasure at your own power.'

Tsze-kung said, 'Chau's badness was not so great as that name suggests. As an outcome of that, the higher man hates to be living in a low-level place, position, where all the wrongdoing of the everywhere on earth will move liquid-like in upon him.'

Tsze-kung said, 'The bad points of the higher man are like the coming before the light of the sun and moon. He has his bad points, and all men see them; he changes again, and all men look up to him.' Kung-sun Ch'ao of Wei questioned Tsze-kung, saying, 'From whom did Chung-ni get his learning?' Tsze-kung answered, 'The bodies of teaching of Wan and Wu have not still fallen to the floor. They are to be discovered among men. Men of powers and good qualities have in mind the greater general rules of them, and others, not being owner of such powers and good qualities, have in mind the smaller. In this way, all have as owner the bodies of teaching of Wan and Wu. Where could our chief go that he rightly would not have a chance of learning them? And still what need was there for his having a regular chief?'

Shu-sun Wu-shu observed to the great persons in authority in the place for hearing law processes, saying, 'Tsze-kung is higher to Chung-ni.' Tsze-fu Ching-po stated the observation to Tsze-kung, who said, 'Let me use the comparison of a house and its going round wall. My wall only gets to the top of the arms. One may quick look over it, and see whatever is of great value in the rooms in the house. 'The wall of my chief is quite a number of distance measures high. If one do not discover the door and move into by it, he cannot see the long-existing place of religion with its beauties, and not all the persons in authority in their full order. 'But I may take to be true that they are small number who discovers the door. Was not the observation of the chief only what could have been looked on as to come?'

Shu-sun Wu-shu having talked violently of Chung-ni, Tsze-kung said, 'it is of no use doing so. Chung-ni cannot be attacked. The powers and good qualities of other men are small mountains and high slope which may be stepped over. Chung-ni is the sun or moon, which it is not possible to step over. Though a man may desire to cut himself off from the wise man, what damage can he do to the sun or moon? He only makes clear that he does not have knowledge of his power.

Ch'an Tsze-ch'in, talking to Tsze-kung, said, 'You are too not self-important. How can Chung-ni be said to be higher to you?' Tsze-kung said to him, 'For one word a man is frequently thought to be wise, and for one word he is frequently thought to be foolish. We rightly would to be careful in fact in what we say. 'Our chief cannot be got to, just in the same way as the the sky, on high cannot be gone up to by the steps of a flight of steps. 'were our chief in the position of the ruler of a nation or the chief of a Family, we rightly would discover made certain the details which has been given of a wise man's rule: -- he would plant the persons in general, and straight away, without loss of time they would be made certain; he would lead them on, and straight away, without loss of time they would move after him; he would make them happy, and straight away, without loss of time a great number, mass would go to his dominions for help; he would make them interested, and straight away, without loss of time they would be in-harmony. While he lived, he would be very beautiful, first-rate. When he came to an end, he would be bitterly regretted. How is it possible for him to be got to?'

BOOK XX. YAO YUEH.

Yao said, 'surprise! You, Shun, the on-high selected order of come one after another now rests in your person. In a true way keep tightly the truly middle, half way between. If there will be trouble and need within the four seas, the sky, on high like income will come to an ongoing end.' Shun in addition used the same language in giving responsibility to Yu. T'ang said, 'I the very young person Li, have a belief to use a dark-colored attacked person, and have a belief to say to you, O most great and best, without parallel highest being, that the wrongdoer I have no fear to be angry with, and you representatives, O highest being, I do not keep in dark, not clearly seen. The test of them is by your mind, O highest being. If, in my person, I do attacks, they are not to be given to you, the persons in general of the great number of parts, divisions, places. If you in the great number of parts, divisions, places do attacks, these attacks have to rest on my person.' Chau given great things given and the good were made better off. 'Though he has his near ones in family relation, they are not equal to my men of good qualities. The persons in general are putting responsibility upon me, the one man.' He carefully gave attention to the weights and measures, looked at the body of the laws, put back to earlier position the put out as of no use persons in authority, and the good government of the country led by a king took its direction. He took back to life states that had been put down, made like new, healthy, normal families whose line of coming after another had been broken, and named to office those who had gone away into darkness, not clearly seen, so that throughout the country led by a king the hearts of the persons in general turned in the direction of him. What he gave chief importance to, were the food of the persons in general, the necessary acts of time of being sad for a loss, and offerings. By his free-giving, he won all. By his trueness, he made the persons in general rest belief in him. By his serious operation, his things done were great. By his being just, all were given great pleasure.

Tsze-chang questioned Confucius, saying, 'In what way rightly would a person in authority act in order that he may guide government rightly?' Confucius answered, 'Let him have great respect to the five very good, of highest quality, and put thoughts out of mind away the four bad, things; -- then may he guide government rightly.' Tsze-chang said, 'what is the sense of the five very good, of highest quality things?' Confucius said, 'When the person in authority is doing good without great money used; when he puts works on the persons in general without their protesting; when he goes after what he desires without being having a desire for what is another's; when he keeps a respectable comfort without being self-looking; when he is great, important without being violent, angry.' Tsze-chang said, 'what is the sense of being doing good without great money used?' Confucius answered, 'When the person in authority makes more good to the persons in general the things from which they naturally get help; -- is not this be doing good without great money used? When he selects the works which are right, and makes them work on them, who will protest? When his desires are put on kind government, and he gets it, who will make a statement against him of wrongful desires? If he has to do with many persons in general or small number, or with things great or small, he does have fear to give any idea without respect; -- is not this to keep a respectable comfort without any self-importance? He adjusts his clothes and hat, and forcefully sends self-respect into his looks, so that, in this way respectable, he is looked at with fear before; -- is not this to be great, important without being violent, angry?' Tsze-chang then questioned, 'what is the sense of the four bad things?' Confucius said, 'To put the persons in general to death without having given teaching to them; -- this is named cruelness. To have need from them, suddenly, the full story of work, without having given them suggestion; -- this is named to keep under by force. To give out orders as if without great need, at first, and, when the time comes, to request strongly on them with being hard, cruel, serious; -- this is named physical damage. And, generally, in the giving pay or rewards to men, to do it in a keeping-back way; -- this is named acting the part of only an officer.'

Confucius said, 'without being conscious of having seen before the orders of the sky, on high, it is not possible to be a higher man. 'Without having knowledge of the rules of right behavior, it is not possible for the qualities to be put up. 'Without having knowledge of the force of words, it is not possible to have knowledge of men.'