Our first App ! We have now released a Basic English course app on the Apple Store (pending approval) and an Android App
Simplish

The only text-simplifying tool that changes standard English into Basic English of only 1,000 words... and now it can also do a summary of multiple files automatically, leaving out any repeated concepts or material which is not relevant. Try it now!

The only Ogden's Basic English text-simplifying tool online. Try it now !

The only Ogden's Basic English text-simplifying tool.

What am I supposed to do with Simplify ? Just enter a text in English to change it into Basic English.
What am I supposed to do with Summary ? The system is currently optimized to do summaries of many files (taking the first as a reference), rather than summarizing a single document. So, it is necessary to input several files covering a given topic (e.g. The Snowden affair or Cheliabinsk meteorite). Current work is centred on doing a summary of a single file choosing only the more relevant parts and it will be added soon.




Basic English.

Because English is the language of Science and Business and that not everybody speaks it fluently, it could be frustrating not to understand an interesting technical or scientific text. That's when Ogden Basic English comes in.





Translation.

We use a different approach for translation. When translating from one language to another, you lose sometimes crucial information. With Simplish, you lose nothing if you have just a 1,000 words long vocabulary, because any text can be simplified down. We have even simplified 30,000 common scintific words, which are described in footnotes where necessary.

Rachael

Summary.

Using our general cognition engine and Simplish, we are able to generate a graphical representation of knowledge that is capable of doing summaries in standard english without looking at specific words, word frequencies, sequences or any prior training! The system can leave out any sentences whose meaning is repeated or any irrelevant snippets of material that might be present.


Summary ?

Let's start by What ?

We have produced the world's first general cognitive engine. This engine is capable of understanding natural language without looking at specific words, patterns, ontologies, neural nets, fuzzy logic or any form of training beforehand. This engine generates multidimensional ideograms which depend on the the semantic content only, and so “understands”, is capable of associating concepts freely and therefore can identify equivalent concepts and evaluate relevance. The summary has a set similarity standard beyond which it considers two sentences to be similar and therefore not to be repeated, and also a set relevance standard beyond which it considers a sentence to be irrelevant, both parameters can be adjusted by registered users. See some examples of how powerful this system is. The output page shows the originals texts separated by a horizontal line on the left and the summary on the right, which is given in standard English but it can itself be simplified if needed.

Note that our summarizing tool is based on the ideas of C.S. Peirce about abduction. The idea is that we start with an argument expressed as a sequence of ideas (which we take to be contained in a first text taken as the reference or starting point). which is then further expanded as further knowledge is added (contained in further texts) with relevant details filling in the argument, consolidating and corroborating propositions and taking out details which, as more information comes in, are judged not to be relevant. Therefore, the user must input two or more texts about the same subject so that a suitable summary can be produced. Although not strictly in keeping with Peircian ideas, we are currently working on extending these ideas to the reference text itself, so that only the main thread of the argument is kept and not so relevant information is left out.

Now why has Summary been developed in Simplish ?

This tool was developed for enabling artificial cognition systems to acquire knowledge from the internet and recall only the most relevant information. However, we believe that there are many areas where this technology could be useful, such as an advanced summarizing technology to help people absorb the most relevant information only in this age of such vasts amounts of data on almost any subject.

Finally, how does it work ?

Unlike other methods, our approach involves the representation of knowledge by graphical ideograms so that meaning is represented by position and shape, and therefore if two sentences have more or less the same meaning, they will have similar ideograms, regardless of the specific wording or grammar. In this way, the computer is now capable of understanding the meaning of sentences and does not need any prior training in order to do a summary well.

Nothing is better than a concrete interactive example. When entering a text in the text field above, you need to separate each text in order to make a paragraph and in this way the system can identify each text, if you click in the above field, a small popup appears where has two buttons, each button is for generating sample text in order to make a summary or simplify text and after clicking the Summary button, you need to wait for automatic redirection.

If you want to copy and paste your text to summarize, you need to give it some format, in this part we will show how to summarize in the text field above, this requires that the text be separated by paragraphs and then to click on the summary button and wait for the automatic redirection.

When people are registered, they can make summaries by clicking on the summary button and then a menu shows files that can be selected and some options relating to topic, which is the title of the summary, followed by relevance, which is a variable parameter (preset to a default value of 50) determining when a concept will be considered to be relevant, and finally fusion, which is a variable parameter (preset to a default value of 90) determining when two concepts will be deemed to be identical and therefore fused into one. See the following illustration:

Availble files.

File name Date Simplify Summary
file1.txt March 6, 2014, 5:31 p.m.
file2.txt March 7, 2014, 5:31 p.m.
file3.txt March 7, 2014, 5:40 p.m.

Topic:
relevance: %
fusion: %

Example of a Summary


Text summarized successfully ! Summary of "Jesus comes to Jerusalem" took 39 seconds

Original has 991 words

Mathew 21 (1-11)

And when they were near Jerusalem, and had come to Beth-phage, to the Mountain of Olives, Jesus sent two disciples, Saying to them, Go into the little town in front of you, and straight away you will see an ass with a cord round her neck, and a young one with her; let them loose and come with them to me. And if anyone says anything to you, you will say, The Lord has need of them; and straight away he will send them. Now this took place so that these words of the prophet might come true, Say to the daughter of Zion, See, your King comes to you, gentle and seated on an ass, and on a young ass. And the disciples went and did as Jesus had given them orders, And got the ass and the young one, and put their clothing on them, and he took his seat on it. And all the people put their clothing down in the way; and others got branches from the trees, and put them down in the way. And those who went before him, and those who came after, gave loud cries, saying, Glory to the Son of David: A blessing on him who comes in the name of the Lord: Glory in the highest. And when he came into Jerusalem, all the town was moved, saying, Who is this? And the people said, This is the prophet Jesus, from Nazareth of Galilee.


Mark 11 (1-11)

And when they came near to Jerusalem, to Beth-phage and Bethany, at the Mountain of Olives, he sent two of his disciples, And said to them, Go into the little town opposite: and when you come to it, you will see a young ass with a cord round his neck, on which no man has ever been seated; let him loose, and come back with him. And if anyone says to you, Why are you doing this? say, The Lord has need of him and will send him back straight away. And they went away and saw a young ass by the door out-side in the open street; and they were getting him loose. And some of those who were there said to them, What are you doing, taking the ass? And they said to them the words which Jesus had said; and they let them go. And they took the young ass to Jesus, and put their clothing on him, and he got on his back. And a great number put down their clothing in the way; and others put down branches which they had taken from the fields. And those who went in front, and those who came after, were crying, Glory: A blessing on him who comes in the name of the Lord: A blessing on the coming kingdom of our father David: Glory in the highest. And he went into Jerusalem into the Temple; and after looking round about on all things, it being now evening, he went out to Bethany with the twelve.


Luke, 19 (28-40)

And when he had said this, he went on in front of them, going up to Jerusalem. And it came about that when he got near Beth-phage and Bethany by the mountain which is named the Mountain of Olives, he sent two of the disciples, Saying, Go into the little town in front of you, and on going in you will see a young ass fixed with a cord, on which no man has ever been seated; let him loose and take him. And if anyone says to you, Why are you taking him? say, The Lord has need of him. And those whom he sent went away, and it was as he said. And when they were getting the young ass, the owners of it said to them, Why are you taking the young ass? And they said, The Lord has need of him. And they took him to Jesus, and they put their clothing on the ass, and Jesus got on to him. And while he went on his way they put their clothing down on the road in front of him. And when he came near the foot of the Mountain of Olives, all the disciples with loud voices gave praise to God with joy, because of all the great works which they had seen; Saying, A blessing on the King who comes in the name of the Lord; peace in heaven and glory in the highest. And some of the Pharisees among the people said to him, Master, make your disciples be quiet. And he said in answer, I say to you, if these men keep quiet, the very stones will be crying out.


John, 12 (12-19)

The day after, a great number of people who were there for the feast, when they had the news that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, Took branches of palm-trees and went out to him, crying, A blessing on him who comes in the name of the Lord, the King of Israel. And Jesus saw a young ass and took his seat on it; as the Writings say, Have no fear, daughter of Zion: see your King is coming, seated on a young ass. (These things were not clear to his disciples at first: but when Jesus had been lifted up into his glory, then it came to their minds that these things in the Writings were about him and that they had been done to him.) Now the people who were with him when his voice came to Lazarus in the place of the dead, and gave him life again, had been talking about it. And that was the reason the people went out to him, because it had come to their ears that he had done this sign. Then the Pharisees said one to another, You see, you are unable to do anything: the world has gone after him.

Summary 426 words

And when they were near Jerusalem, and had come to Beth-phage, to the Mountain of Olives, Jesus sent two disciples, Saying to them, Go into the little town in front of you, and straight away you will see an ass with a cord round her neck, and a young one with her; let them loose and come with them to me.

And they took him to Jesus, and they put their clothing on the ass, and Jesus got on to him.

And if anyone says to you, Why are you taking him? say, The Lord has need of him.

And if anyone says anything to you, you will say, The Lord has need of them; and straight away he will send them.

Now this took place so that these words of the prophet might come true, Say to the daughter of Zion, See, your King comes to you, gentle and seated on an ass, and on a young ass.

And when he had said this, he went on in front of them, going up to Jerusalem.

And those whom he sent went away, and it was as he said.

(These things were not clear to his disciples at first: but when Jesus had been lifted up into his glory, then it came to their minds that these things in the Writings were about him and that they had been done to him.) Now the people who were with him when his voice came to Lazarus in the place of the dead, and gave him life again, had been talking about it.

Then the Pharisees said one to another, You see, you are unable to do anything: the world has gone after him.

And he said in answer, I say to you, if these men keep quiet, the very stones will be crying out.

And some of the Pharisees among the people said to him, Master, make your disciples be quiet.

And a great number put down their clothing in the way; and others put down branches which they had taken from the fields.

The day after, a great number of people who were there for the feast, when they had the news that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, Took branches of palm-trees and went out to him, crying, A blessing on him who comes in the name of the Lord, the King of Israel.

And when he came into Jerusalem, all the town was moved, saying, Who is this? And the people said, This is the prophet Jesus, from Nazareth of Galilee.




Basic English ? Text translation ?

Fair enough, let's start by what Simplish is.

Simplish is the result of an artificial intelligence project led by AVNTK. The main objective of this team effort is producing a means to reduce the number of words employed to convey knowledge, while substantially maintaining the information content. The Simplish wizard is an online tool that simplifies any text in English into its Basic English version, that is the same content written using only the 1,000 essential words in English that Charles K. Ogden defined for Basic English.

Making available this tool for use by the general public, through this site, we provide a useful service that our team is very happy to offer to those whose mother tongue is not English – particularly in the global scientific community – or people who need to understand quickly technical, complex texts without the help of an external person and without losing any information of the content.

? That is cool, but what is that «Basic English» thing that you can't stop talking about ?

Good point. Basic English stands for British American Science International Commercial English. It has been developed by Charles Kay Ogden, an English linguist and philosopher, in the 1920's. The idea behind it is that you can say almost anything in English using a reduced vocabulary of 1,000 words and by redefining every concepts using those essential words. It has also some simplified grammar rules that allows you to express in a correct but easy way. Let's hear what Wikipedia has to say about it.

Basic English, also known as Simple English, is an English-based controlled language created (in essence as a simplified subset of English) by linguist and philosopher Charles Kay Ogden as an international auxiliary language, and as an aid for teaching English as a Second Language. It was presented in Ogden's book Basic English: A General Introduction with Rules and Grammar (1930). [...] What survives today of Ogden's Basic English is the basic 850-word list used as the beginner's vocabulary of the English language taught worldwide, especially in Asia.

Wikipedia about Basic English

? Hey! It says 850 words, not 1'000...

I can't lose you, well done. We used 1,000 words because Mr. Ogden himself precised that, even though those 850 words allows you to understand and say almost everything, you can complete the list with international and technical words to have the vocabulary necessary for the everyday work and life. So we added 100 words required for any general field such as Science and 50 internationally recognized words to obtain a total of 1,000 words that enable successful communication.

? Nice, do you provide a list of those words ?

Of course we do. You can find such a list in the alphabetic listing that we made up. We also provide the entire Basic English course that Charles Ogden invented. Oh, it's online and free. Isn't that great ?

Now, why has Simplish been developed ?

English is the international language. Moreover, in technical fields such as Science, Medicine, Business or Law, English is the official language. In 2012, 55% of the internet content was written in English. These are sufficient reasons to know English if you want to understand text in those fields. Of course, you can use translation tools to translate a text in English to any other languages. But they are in general of very low quality due to the complexities of correctly deriving the equivalence between words and phrases in two distinct natural languages. Translation is difficult for numerous reasons, including :

  • the lack of one-to-one word correspondences among languages
  • the existence in every language of homonyms
  • the fact that natural grammars are idiosyncratic

It is toward a computational «understanding» of these idiosyncrasies that many artificial intelligence research efforts have been directed, and their limited success testifies to the complexity of the problem. An alternative is to interact in a language which is widely understood and which many people wish to learn, even if at a basic conversational level, in order to interact and be entertained, as it is the case with the English language. The difficulty then arises of how to understand complex material even if only a colloquial level of knowledge is available.

? So basically, you are telling me that you translate from English to English ?

You are right. And this is because when translating from a language to another, you are losing information. What we found out is that, using Basic English, even though you lose in readability information. Which is precious. Actually, where complex or ambiguous material is being turned from English into a reduced-vocabulary representation, there will be some loss of semantic content. However, material of a legal, business, scientific and technological nature is normally specifically produced in a way that seeks to be both precise and clear, and is therefore amenable to a reduced-vocabulary representation. You should read the section Basic English for Artificial Intelligence if you are interested by the topic.

?It is getting clearer, but can I see examples ?

Sure. Check the next section about how does Simplish work. You can also visit our examples page where you will find more translated texts or test it by yourself.

Finally, how does it work ?

Nothing is better than a concrete interactive example. When entering a text in the field above and after clicking the Translate button, you will be asked to chose between various options. Change them in the box below to see the difference.

Your text contains XX words.
Translation estimated time is YY seconds.

Chose your options

And this is the result you will obtain :

Takuya Sato at Yokohama City University in Japan and colleagues extracted germ cells from the testes of newborn mice that had not yet begun producing sperm. They placed the cells in agarose gel soaked in nourishing chemicals and hormones such as fetal bovine serum and testosterone. The team had first engineered the mice so that a protein only present in fully grown sperm would fluoresce green. Sure enough, around one month later, the team spotted the glowing protein in nearly half of their samples.

Takuya Sato at Yokohama City University in Japan and persons having like-position got from germ cells 1 from the testes 2 of fresh after birth small rat-like animals that had not yet started producing sperm 3. They placed the cells 4 in agarose 5 gel 6 made wet in making stronger chemicals 7 and hormones 8 such as fetal 9 bovine 10 serum 11 and testosterone 12. The group had first engineered the small rat-like animals so that a protein 13 only present in fully grown sperm 3 would fluoresce 14 green. sure enough, around one month later, the group spotted the glowing 15 protein 13 in nearly half of their samples 16.

germ cells
Any CELL whose purpose is the producing of a new plant or animal, specially the male or female sex-cell. Continue reading.
testes
The part of the body of a male animal producing SPERMATOZOA. Continue reading.
sperm
SPERMATOZOON or SPERMATOZOID; SEMEN. Continue reading.
cells
Unit of structure of plants and animals having a NUCLEUS small hollow, walled space. Continue reading.
agarose
a POLYSACCHARIDE obtained from AGAR. Continue reading.
gel
Become a gel. Continue reading.
chemicals
Of, to do with, used in, chemistry. Continue reading.
hormones
Any of the substances produced by the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, which are taken by the blood to different parts of the body and have a special effect on their working. Continue reading.
fetal
fetus, See FOETAL, FOETUS. Continue reading.
bovine
Of, to do with, animals of the GENUS Bos, such as the cow. Continue reading.
serum
The water-like part separating from a body-liquid when it goes solid, specially from the blood; any thin, water-like liquid forming part of the body of an animal. Continue reading.
testosterone
A male HYDROXY STEROID KETONE (C19H28O2) SEX-HORMONE produced by the TESTES or made by man by chemical processes. Continue reading.
protein
Any of a great and important group of complex natural substances, forming a great part of all living material, in the form of long CHAINS of AMINO-ACIDS, into which they may be broken up by HYDROLYSIS, needed in food for body-building and got chiefly from meat, cheese, eggs, and fish. Continue reading.
fluoresce
Have the property of fluorescence, or be in the process of fluorescence. Continue reading.
glowing
The process of giving out light as a result of FLUORESCENCE. Continue reading.
samples
A small amount of some material, substance or measurement of a physical quantity taken as an example at some time, for testing purposes and the like, as a sample of ORE. Continue reading.

Here is the color code we use to help you understand the translation :

Black
Words in Black don't change between the two versions.
Green
Words in Green mean they have been translated adequately.
Purple
Words in Purple display a further explanation in foot notes.
Blue
Words in Blue contain two or more possible meanings (a tooltip is provided for these words, place the mouse cursor on top of blue words to see possible meanings).
Orange
Words in Orange are not currently available in Basic English.
Red
Words in Red are names, special terms or not recognized by the translating tool.

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