Read and memorize these nouns and adjectives.
Clean - Dirty
Strong - Feeble
1. The use of ending -ER, -ING, -ED
1.1 WITH NOUNS
These endings may be used with 300 of the 600 Basic nouns. The addition of “-ing” to a noun gives us, as in the case of the “-ing” forms of the operators:
(a) A noun naming an act, which is related in one or other of various ways (the most important of which will be noted later is this Section) to what is named by the root noun.
(b) An adjective describing a person or thing as doing this act.
The addition of “-ed” to a noun forms an adjective applied, like the operator forms taken, done, etc., in their use after be, to the person or thing to which the act named by “-ing” noun is done.
The addition of “-er” to a noun forms a noun, naming the person or thing which does the act named by the “-ing” noun.
There are two spelling points to keep in mind:
(a) All words ending in “e” drop the “e” before “-er” and “-ed”, and all except two (eyeing, shoeing) drop it before “-ing”: miner, moving, ruled.
(b) Words ending in a consonant (other that w, x or y) preceded by a single vowel, and which are either monosyllables or have the accent on the last syllable, double the final consonant before “-er”, “-ing”, and “-ed”: rubber, stepping, netted.
The sense connection between the action named by the “-ing” form and the noun form which it is formed varies according to the meaning of the latter and with the context. It is generally a matter of common sense, and in most cases the context provides the clue. When the root noun has several senses, the derived forms may have several senses also, or they may have one sense only, related either to the main sense of the root noun or to an expansion. The sense of “-ed” and “-er” forms, as will be clear from the previous definition of them, depends (with one or two exceptions which is need not note at present) on that of the “-ing” form.
Here we will give examples of the four main types of sense connection between the “-ing” form (and correspondingly, the “-ed” and “-er” forms) and the root. Many of the “-ing” and “-ed” adjectives formed from nouns, unlike the adjectives formed from operators, may be used before a noun. This use must not be assumed to be possible in every case, however, because there are numerous exceptions, but note, for a start, the instances that occur in the following examples. Only the more commonly used “-er” forms will be given.
I. Names of acts.
The –ing noun: doing the act named by the root noun.
- Kicking is against the rules.
- The boy was kicking a dog.
- Keep away from a kicking horse.
- The ball was kicked across the field.
- This horse is a kicker.
- After working for an hour the man had a rest.
- Is she working at the office?
- The workers are not getting enough money.
- Touching the coat made her hands dirty.
- Your head is almost touching the roof.
- The butter has not been touched by anyone’s hands.
- This is not a good place for talking in.
- All of them were talking at the same time.
- We have a talking bird on the ship.
- What was talked about? 1
- The new man on the committee is a good talker.
1 When an "-ing" form cannot be followed by a direct object, but only one preceded by a preposition, the -ed form has naturally to be completed by the same preposition. We say talking to (about) a person, and so, of course, of a person, that is talked to (about), and so on.
II. Names of things with which acts are performed.
The “-ing” noun: doing something for which the thing named by the root noun is commonly used.
Ploughing: turning up earth with a plough, using a plough on.
- Most of the ploughing is done in the fall.
- He was ploughing (plowing) the field yesterday.
- All the land has been ploughed.
- A ploughed field is opposite the house.
Draining: Taking away liquid (from).
- The slope is for draining the road.
- I am draining the plates before I put them on the shelf.
- The potatoes are in the drainer (vessel with holes in it for draining vegetables).
- This would be good farm lad if it had been drained.
Housing2 : providing living accommodation (for).
- The committee had a long discussion about housing.
- The company is housing its workmen in new steel buildings.
- When these persons are better housed in clean buildings which get light and air, there will be less disease.
With substance words, the “-ing” act frequently that of putting the substance on something (the sense of the “-ing” adjective and the “-ed” form corresponding in the usual way).
- Never put the meat in before buttering the basin.
- Papering the walls will make the room warmer.
- This is the pot for watering the plants. He got his hands clean by soaping them well.
The “-ing” forms of some nouns which are not names of substances have a similar sense.
- After covering the basin of soup with a plate, she put it on a shelf.
- His work is shoeing horses. 3
With another group of words, the “-ing” act is that of putting something into the thing named by the root noun.
- He is only good at pocketing the money.
- The bottling of the wine is done in this country.
- Now let me make a suggestion about potting plants.
2 Note that the 's' is housing, housed is pronounced like 'z'.
3 By expansion (horse) shoe is the name given to the iron put on a horse's hoof : Shoeing corresponds only with this sense.
III. Names of things, frequently fictions, which are produced by some act of process.
The –ing noun: making or producing the thing named by the root noun.
Printing: producing (books, etc.) in print.
- The printing has not been done with enough care.
- They are printing cards giving details of the meeting.
- The book was printed last year.
- This was the first printed book.
- The printer has put the wrong number on this page.
Questioning: putting a question or questions to.
- I got some idea of the invention by questioning someone who had seen it.
- She is questioning the boys who took the fruit.
- If you are questioned, say that the ornament was broken when I gave it to you.
- The questioner was a small man with a loud voice.
Helping: giving help to.
- She takes interest in helping persons who are in trouble.
- The rest is helping him to get well.
- Were you helped by my suggestions?
- If they had more helpers they would get the work done more quickly.
IV.Name of feelings and conditions.
(a) The “-ing” noun: experiencing or directing to some object the feeling named by the root noun. When not otherwise noted, -ing forms derived from names of feelings may be assumed to have this sense.
- We do not get things by desiring them.
- I did not say why I was desiring to see her.
- The tree did not give the desired shade.
- We have reasons for fearing that your friend may be ill.
- What are you fearing?
- His is greatly feared by all his servants.
(b) The –ing noun: causing to be in the condition, or to have the feeling, 4 named by the root noun.
- This is her time for resting. 5
- Joan is resting in her room.
- He was resting his eyes in a dark room.
- Do not get up till you are rested.
- He has little hope of interesting his son in business.
- This invention has been interesting me for some time.
- I am reading an interesting book.
- My mother is not interested in dogs or cats.
Though the “-er”, “-ing”, and “-ed” endings may be added to half the Basic nouns, these endings are more useful in some cases than in others. There are a few nouns with which the “-ed” ending is seldom needed because of the sense, and a greater number that are rarely used with “-er”. It is unnecessary, however, to burden the learner at this stage with detailed warnings and explanations. For the present you will be wise to restrict yourself to the formations that you find used in this course.
Gradually, with the practice, you will become familiar with these endings and learn how to use them freely.
4 The complete list of names of feelings whose -ing derivative has the same is: comfort, disgust, interest, pain, shame, shock, surprise.
5 Note that when the condition of rest is caused in oneself, the object is normally omitted, as in the case of keeping. The same thing applies to several other -ing forms, for example, changing.
1.2 WITH OPERATORS
There are one or two exceptions to the rule that adjectives formed from operators are not used before nouns, but as these for the most part apply only in special senses, they will be noted as needed. Coming (in the special sense noted in Step 20) is one which has already been met with.
A few of the operators also take the “-er” ending.
Comer: one who comes. This is used only when qualified by first, last, or late, or in the compound newcomer.
Doer: one who does.
Giver: one who gives.
Keeper: one who keeps. Used generally, or in the specialized sense of one who is responsible for keeping or looking after something, such as the keeper of a museum or a gamekeeper.
Maker: one who makes.
Sender: one who sends.
“Much” and “little” are used as adverbs with the sense 'in a great degree' and 'in a small degree'. “A little” is also used adverbially, the difference between it and “little” being the same as in the pronoun or adjective use. These adverbs are used:
(a) Before comparatives, some “-ed” adjectives, and certain phrases. You will learn by experience which adjectives and phrases may be so qualified.
- Wood is much cleaner than coal.
- The weather is little better today than yesterday.
- I have a little more soup than you.
- Our cat is only a very little smaller than our dog.
- They went to the country for a much needed rest.
- Your mother seems very little changed.
- The news that she was ill made us a little troubled.
- The eggs of these fowls are very much smaller.
- My brother is much in debt.
Much is also used before superlatives.
- This is much the strongest table.
- Our farm has much the most fowls.
(b) To qualify an operator together whit the object, -ing adjective, etc., completing it, in which case it follows the later. Much is seldom used in this way is positive statements unless qualified by very or so.
- She sees her friends very little. 6
- She is not talking much to her friends.
- This book is interesting me very much.
- The baby has been coughing little today.
- The ornaments have been moved a little.
- The rain hasn't come through much.
6 When the sense makes clear that the action is a recurrent one, it is, naturally enough, to the frequency of the acts that the idea of degree applies: so that, as in this example, little becomes the equivalent of 'infrequently', and so on.
GETTING A NEW COOK
[Two women are seated in a room. One is dressed in a hat and coat. The other is the woman of the house.]
Woman of the House: What did you say your name was?
Cook: Mrs. Waters. I have come about your advertisement. I saw it in the newspaper this morning. You are offering good money and this seems to be the sort of place I am looking for.
Woman of the House: What experience have you had?
Cook: I was a cook before I was married and after Mr. Waters' death I went back to cooking. I have been in some very good houses.
Woman of the House: Are you working for anyone now?
Cook: My heart is not strong and I have been ill, so I had to have a rest and I went to my son in the country. Now, after resting for some months, I am well enough to go back to work. I would have gone back before I have had a cut finger which has been giving me some trouble.
Woman of the House: Who were you with last?
Cook: I was in Brighton with a woman named Mrs. Page. There were other women servants there, and a man servant, and a boy who did the dirty work for me. It was a house with a great number of rooms. If you get in touch with Mrs. Page she will give you her opinion of me.
Woman of the House: I am surprised that you were interested in my advertisement. Have you ever been a cook in a small house like this? Experienced cooks are frequently not very ready to go to small houses. Mr. White and I and our small daughter are the only person in the family. The housework is done by a woman who comes in every morning.
Cook: I was with a small family before I went to Mrs. Page, and I am looking for a small place now. A cook has more authority in a house where there are other servants, and the work is much more interesting, but it is frequently harder. A quiet place is better for an old woman such I am.
Woman of the House: Things are quieter, naturally, in a small house, but some cooks say that there is more work. You will not be helped as much here as you were in your last place.
Cook: I did more work when I was with Mrs. Page than I had ever done before. She had friends for almost every meal and I had a great amount of cooking to do for the other servants. Sometimes I was kept up very late. Does the woman who comes in do all the housework?
Woman of the House: Almost all of it. I make our beds and if you keep your bedroom clean and the room where you do the cooking, Mrs. Porter will do the other rooms.
Cook: At what time does she come in the morning?
Woman of the House: Quite early. While you are boiling the eggs or cooking the fish for the morning meal, she will get the table ready. Then she will do the rooms. This is not a dirty house and we have almost no ornaments about. She does her work with care and gets through it very quickly.
Cook: Who gets the buckets of coal and does the shoes? I am getting feeble now and I am not able to do work of that sort.
Woman of the House: Mrs. Porter has said that she will take up the coal, but we have more wood than coal for our fires. The wood is cut for us by Mr. Porter, and he comes at night and does the boots and shoes. He has the care of the fowls, and when he has time he does the same for gardening. He is a good gardener.
Cook: Do you get eggs from your fowls?
Woman of the House: Yes, we get a great number of eggs at this time of the year. In out family we don't have much meat. We have fish and eggs and a great amount of garden produce. I get all out milk and butter from a farmer near here, and sometimes he lets us have a cheese he has made.
Cook: That is the healthiest sort of food. I only take very little meat. Anyone who has a bad heart is very much better without it.
Woman of the House: My daughter comes back from school in the middle of the day and we have our chief meal then. At night we have only soup and cheese and some fruit such as apples and oranges, or nuts. It gives the cooks less work.
Cook [laughing]: That seems a very good idea.
Woman of the House: Will you come to me, Mrs. Waters, or are you not strong enough? I would let you have quite a long rest every day and my daughter would be quite ready to give you some help with the washing up.
Cook: The work does not seem hard. May I come for a month and see if I am able to do it?
Woman of the House: That is a wise suggestion. When will you come? We have no one now, and I am doing all the cooking and am teaching at the same time, so I am getting very tired. I was hoping to get someone quickly.
Cook: My son has gone to the seaside with his family and I said I would take care of his house till he come back. If I come a week from now, will that be early enough?
Woman of the House: That will be all right, but please don't come any later.
Cook: Are there any animals in the house?
Woman of the House: Yes. We keep a dog and a cat. Mr. White has taken the dog with him today, but the cat is by the fire in my room.
Cook: I'm a lover of animals, and specially cats.
Woman of the House: So am I. Come and have a look at it and see the other rooms of the house before you go. [They get up and Mrs. White takes a look out of the window.] There's Mr. Porter watering the flowers.
Cook: Will you be writing to Mrs. Page?
Woman of the House: No. There is not need for that. [They go out.]
Read Carefully, this are some sentences of the text, and here is the explanation form them.
Seated: Sitting, that is, on a seat. Seating oneself means 'taking a seat', and when one has taken it one is seated.
Dressed in: Clothed in. Dressed : clothed (from dressing = putting clothing (dress) on).
Woman of the house: The female head of a household, generally the wife of the householder, may be referred to as the woman of the house.
What did you say your name was? : Note the construction of this question, corresponding to a complex statement of the form: you said (that) your name was . . . .
Good money: High wages.
The sort of place: Place may be used, as here, in the sense of ' job, post '.
Looking for: Seeking. Similarly, have a look for = seek.
Cooking: Doing the work of a cook, preparing (food). There is a small group of nouns naming persons who do something. The -ing form of these stands for the act which the person does. Cooking is the work of a cook and judging is the function of a judge. The root noun itself of course takes the place of an -er from naming a person, but note that the form cooker is used for a ' cooking-stove '.
Named: Naming: ' bestowing a name or the name specified on ' or ' mentioning by the name ', and the senses of named correspond.
Get in touch with: get into communication with, either in person or by correspondence, etc.
Surprised that: surprised by the fact. That is here equivalent in sense to because. It is commonly used in this way after words expressing an attitude. Note that the -ing and -ed forms of surprise are parallel in sense to those interest
Experienced cooks: Experiencing = having an experience, and experienced = had an experience. Like many -ed forms, however, experienced may also mean ' with, having, what is named by the noun from which the adjective is formed '. An experienced person (cook) is one having much experience (of cooking, etc.).
The work is . . . harder: Hard work is strenuous work; such is needed to crack a hard nut or answer a hard question.
Make our beds: To make a bed is to put the covers on it, to make it ready for sleeping in.
Boiling the eggs: Boiling anything is cooking it in boiling water.
Cooking the fish: Fish is used like the name of a substance (corresponding to meat) when we are talking of a fish or fishes as food.
Will do the rooms: That is, she will do what is necessary to the rooms, clean and tidy them. Compare "does the shoes" later in the Step, where it is clear that does similarly means ' cleans ' on this occasion.
The wood is cut for us by Mr. Porter: A few adjectives naming conditions (cut, bent, broken, married, tired) may, like the “-ed” forms used after be, have sense not simply of a condition but of the undergoing of an action that brings that condition about, the doer of the action being named, when needed, after by. The process of undergoing the action may be shown by using the adjective after being (The wood is being cut).
Has the care of the fowls: Care has to be exercised with regard to something that one has charge of, and so care of has come to be used, as here, in the sense of ' charge of '. The have the care of is to be responsible for looking after.
Gardening: Doing work in the garden. In the case of two other nouns naming places, the -ing form similarly stands for the work normally done in the place; farming is the work done on a farm and mining is the work done in a mine. A gardener is, of course, one who does gardening, a farmer, one who does farming, and a miner one who does mining.
Without: not having.
Soup and cheese: Cheese is used as the name both of a countable and of a substance, cheese being the substance of which a cheese is made.
Ready to give: willing to give. When one is prepared in one's mind to do something, one is generally willing to do it. Ready is used in this sense chiefly before to be followed by an operator, though it occasionally precedes a noun, as in I was pleased by their ready help. The adverb readily may also be used in the sense of 'willingly'.
Washing up: An idiom which means 'washing crockery and cutlery after meals, etc
See if I am able to: find out whether I am able to. Always before if and sometimes before a relative pronoun or adverb (Will you see who is at the door? I am going to see where the cat is.), see has the sense of 'find out'. Note that if, in addition to its conditional meaning, has the sense of 'whether'.
Teaching at the same time: Though the use of at with time suggests a point of time, it may, as here, refer to a stretch or period.
Helping to get: The use of to followed by an operator is very common after -ing and “-ed” forms. Two other examples occurred in the earlier part of this Step dealing with structure: "helping him to get well", "desiring to see her".
Seaside: some place on the coast or the coast generally, as a holiday resort (literally the side of the sea). As a noun, it is always used with the. Compare with the country.
Take care of: Note this idiom meaning 'look after'.
All right: Anything is said to be all right when it has nothing wrong with it, that is, when it is given approval, is regarded as satisfactory.
Any later: Any is used adverbially before the comparative forms of adjectives and adverbs, with the sense 'in an (however small a) degree'.
We keep a dog: Keep may be used, in reference to animals, in the sense of 'own'.
1. Describe what is taking place in each of these pictures, using the following words:
2. Spell the following:
(a) The -ing form of net.
(b) The -ed form of sponge.
(c) The -er form of rule.
(d) The -ed form of head.
(e) The -er form of mine.
(f) The -ing form of step.
3. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences:
(a) We are ____ing the baby Paul.
(b) The floor has been ___ed with soap and water.
(c) He did not get as much money as he was ___ing to get.
d) The ___er has not put any seeds in.
(e) The ___er was taken to hospital after he had been ___ed by one of his cows.
(f) Are you ___ed in education?
(g) The ___ers made a protest to the manager because they were not getting enough money.
(h) A man in the market-place with the same bottles of red liquid was ___ing in a loud voice.
4. Write six sentences in Basic, bringing the name of a different animal into each.
5. Answer in Basic:
(a) Why did Mrs. Waters have to have a rest?
(b) What experience Mrs. Waters had of cooking?
(c) What did Mrs. Waters say about working as a cook in a house like Mrs. White's and working in a house like Mrs. Page’s?
(d) What sort of cooks are sometimes not ready to go to small houses?
(e) Which part of the work does Mr. Porter do?
(f) How does Mrs. Porter do her work?
(g) What work does Mr. Porter do?
(h) What does Mrs. White get from the farmer?
(i) What does Mrs. White say about the food they have?
(j) Why was Mrs. Waters not able to come till after a week?
(k) Where were the animals?