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STEP 9

Vocabulary


dssda     Read and memorize this nouns and adjectives.

Nouns

Boy

Girl

Bridge

River

Tree

Middle

Part

Thing

 

Adjectives

 

Young - Old


New


 

Structure words


See


Very


Because


Till


Yes

 

Structure

 

  • Nouns

    

The pronoun form “what” has the sense of that which (see page 35).

 

  • The boy takes what the man gives him to his mother.
  • They do not let her do what the other girls do.
  • What I have I will keep.

 

 

 

  • Adjectives of Quantity

 

 

The adjective old is the opposite of both new and young.


                          

A young man.

An old man.

EP63

EP63

 

 

A new bag.

An old bag.

EP63

EP63

 

 

  • Operators

 

 


Learn the Present and Future Tense of see.

 

 


Root Form

Past

Present

Future

SEE

SAW  

SEE

WILL SEE  

 

But He, She, it            SEES  

 

 

  • The building which you see is not a store.

  • When the bird sees he boy, it goes from the tree.

  • You will see the things when they are ready.

 

 

When giving an order, the root form of the operator is used without a subject.

 

  • Come with me.
  • Put that thing in the river.
  • Go to the store and take the girl with you.
  • Be quick!

 

Negative orders are formed with the auxiliary do, even when the operator is be or have (neither of which, as we have seen, takes the auxiliary in negative statements).

 

  • Do not put the food on the floor.
  • Do not go up the tree.
  • Do not be slow.
  • Do not have a house in the country.

 

We now come to forms made by adding “-ing” to the operators. Going through the operators you have already learned, these are : “being”, “coming”, “doing”, “getting”, “giving”, “going”, “having”, “keeping”, “letting”, “making”, “putting”, “seeing”, “seeming”, “taking”. Note that the “e” is dropped in giving, having, making, and taking, and that the  “t” Is doubled in getting, letting, and putting.


The “-ing” forms are used like adjectives after some form of be to describe an action as in progress and not complete. 1 They may be followed by whatever would be necessary to complete the statement with any other form of the operator.

 

  • The train is going across the bridge.
  • These men are making things for the new building.
  • I will be doing work in the garden while you are in the house.
  • She may be getting some flowers.
  • The boy is not coming here.
  • I am putting the apples where you will see them.

 

Compare these examples with:

 

  • I am hanging this net on the tree.

 

The combination of “be” with an -ing form I sot generally used in the case of have (in the sense of 'own' or 'be in possession of'), be, seem, and see, because these operators describe a continuing condition rather than an act.

 

  • I have a garden.
  • The tree has green leaves.
  • My mother is old.
  • This part of the bridge seems new.
  • I see a young man by the river.
  • Note: I am having a garden, etc.

 

On the other hand, one may say:

 

  • The boy is having a meal.   (When have:  'eat', an act.)
  • The porter is being quick.   (Meaning that he is doing something quickly at the present time.)

 

In a “when” or “while” statement using “be” followed by an “-ing” form, if the subject is the same as that used in the main statement, it and the operator be are often omitted. Thus we may say:

 

  • When going across the bridge, you will see the boys in the river.
  • I will do he work while going to the office.

1 Operations with the -ing endings used after be form the Continuous Tenses. They are frequently used where another language would use the Simple Present etc., Tense. The Simple Present in English is used only when we are not describing the act as in progress.


  • Prepositions

 

The only new preposition in this Step is “till”, which is used only in connection with time.

 

  • He will be here till the morning.

   

  In negative statements, “not . . . till” generally has the special force of 'at the time named and not before'.

 

  • The old man will not get out of his bed till the morning.   (That is, he will get out of his be in the morning and not before)

  

  Note that till may be a conjunction as well as a preposition. As a conjunction, it introduces a dependent statement.

 

  • She will not go till you come.
  • Adverbs

 

The adverb of degree, “very”, qualifies only adjectives and adverbs, and is placed immediately before them. It is never used with out or the adverbial uses of prepositions.

 

  • This wall is a part of a very old building.
  • Between the towns of a very wide river.
  • The boy may take the girl very far from the house.
  • Do not go very near to the river.

 

   Adverbs may be formed from a number of adjectives by the addition of “-ly”. These adverbs describe the manner in which an act is done. Like other adverbs, they are sometimes put at the beginning. The learner must be careful, however, not to make use of this order except with adverbs with which he has found it exemplified, as it is not always possible.

 

  • The men are making the bridge slowly.
  • Frequently the family goes to the country.
  • She does this work very quickly.

 

   There order in relation to other adverbs and adverbial phrases after an operator varies somewhat with the sense, and details must be discovered by experience. Speaking generally, however, they come after adverbs of place and before adverbs of time.

 

  • The trains go from here frequently.
  • The trains go frequently at night.
  • The trains go from here frequently at night.

 

 

  • Conjunctions

 

The conjunction “because” introduces a dependent statement giving a reason for what is said in the other part of the sentence.

 

  • Go to the river with the boy because he is young.
  • Because the garden has no trees, the building gets no shade.
  • Questions

 

Questions of the sort which may be answered with a simple 'yes' or 'no' are formed from statements using be, have, will, and may by simply reversing the order of the operator or auxiliary and the subject.


Statement: The girl is in the river.
Question:   Is the girl in the river?
Statement: You are not ready.
Question:   Are you not ready?

 

  • Am I far from the station?
  • Are you ready?
  • Are the boys going across the bridge?
  • Has your friend a beautiful daughter?
  • Will he keep this part of the buildings for his office?
  • May the house be full?

 

  • Yes and No

 

Though “Yes” and “No” are complete answers in themselves and may stand alone, they are sometimes combined with a full statement or, more frequently, with an abbreviated statement consisting merely of the subject and the operator or auxiliary, followed, I the case of a denial, by not.

 

  • Has the boy on the bridge a book in his hand?

  

                           Yes, he has (a book).

 

  • Will he be ready?

 

                          Yes, he will (be ready).

 

  • Is this the middle of the room?

 

                        No, it is not (the middle of the room).

 

Exercises

 

 

 

 

  • Answer these questions:

 

(a)   Where is the building?

A:

(b)   Is it a house?

A:

(c)   Who is on the bridge?

A:

(d)   Is she at the end of the bridge?

A:

 

 

  • Rewrite this passage using the -ing forms where possible.

 

I see a small boy in the garden. He takes the berries off the plant by the wall. He has a basket. He puts some berries into the basket and some into his pocket. The birds do not take the berries while he is there. I see what he does but I do not let him see me.

A:

 

 

  • Write down three orders, using the operation let (negative form), be, and come. 

 

 

  • Put these statements into the form of questions :

 

 

  • All the bridges are new.

 

A:

 

  • They will be married before you see them.

 

A:

 

  • The girls are going across the river.

 

A:

 

  •  I have a part of the branch in my hand.

 

A:

 

  • The train may not go.

 

A:


 

  • Answer in Basic :

 

  • Is a branch a part of a tree?

 

A:

 

  • Are you a woman?

 

A:

 

  • Is grass black?

 

A:

 

  • Are all berries sweet?

 

A:

 

  • Have you a son or a daughter?

 

A: